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Dear students, prepare for biology class 9th chapter 2 long questions. These important long questions are carefully added to get you best preparation for your 9th class biology ch. 2 exams.
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Question: 1
Define biological method. Explain its various steps involved in this method.
Answer: 1
Definition Any organized and systematic method which is used to resolve a specific biological problem is called biological method of study. Or "The scientific method in which biological problems are solved is called biological method." Importance: Biological method has contributed to the advancements in medicine, ecology, technology etc. Biological method also ensures the quality of data for public use. Different steps of solving a Biological Problem In order to resolve a specific biological problem, biologist takes following steps; (i) Recognition of biological problem (ii) Observations (iii) Hypothesis formulation (iv) Deductions (v) Experimentations (vi) Summarization of results (create tables, graphics etc.) (vii) Reporting the results. (i) Recognition of Biological Problem The first step in biological method is to determine a biological problem. A biological problem is a query about living organisms that is either asked by someone or comes in biologist's mind by himself. (ii) Observations Observations are made with five senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch. Types of observations Observations may be qualitative or quantitative. Comparison of Quantitative and qualitative observations. Quantitative observations are considered more accurate than qualitative observations because the former are invariable and measurable and can be recorded in terms of numbers. Explanation (a) Qualitative Observations Definition Qualitative observations are less accurate, variable and can't be measured. These represent the quality of substance e.g., beauty, intelligence etc. 4 The freezing point of water is colder than the boiling point. 4 A liter of water is heavier than a liter of ethanol. (b) Quantitative Observations Definition These represent quantity which can be measured in term of numbers and are measurable and invariable. 4 The freezing point of water is 0°C and the boiling point is 100°C. 4 A liter of water weighs 1000 grams and a liter of ethanol weighs 789 grams. (iii)Formulation of Hypothesis Definition Any suitable proposition that might be true is hypothesis. OR The tentative explanation of observations is called a hypothesis. Characteristics of hypothesis (a) It should be a general statement. (b) It should be a tentative idea. (c) It should agree with available observations. (d) It should be kept as simple as possible. (e) It should be testable and potentially falsifiable. iv) Deductions Definition It is a logical conclusion drawn from hypothesis. The deductions are tested through experiments. Testing one deduction and finding it correct does not mean the hypothesis is correct but the validity of hypothesis is more supported if many deductions confirm the hypothesis. v) Experiments Experiments are designed to test the deduction. Biologists perform experiments to see hypotheses are true or not. For this purpose, experimental and control groups are formed. Experimental group The group of those who are affected in some way and we do not know the real cause e.g., a group of malarial patients. Control Group It is the group of unaffected people i.e. group of healthy persons in case of malaria vi) Summarization of Results The biologist gathers actual and quantitative data from the experiments. To draw conclusions, the biologist also uses statistical analysis. vii) Reporting the Results Publishing of results in scientific journals and books is an essential part of the scientific method. It allows other people to verify the results or apply the knowledge to solve other problems.
Question: 2
Explain biological method with an example of malaria.
Answer: 2
Observations about Malaria. (1) Disease of chills and fever In ancient times, physicians were familiar with this disease. They described it as a disease of chills and fever with recurring attacks. They observed that the disease was more common among people living in low marshy areas. (2) Association of malaria with marshy places It was thought that the stagnant water of marshes poisoned the air and as a result of breathing in this "bad air", people got malaria. This belief lead to the name of disease "Malaria". (3) Meaning of malaria A combination of two Italian words. "The Italian word for "bad" is mala and "air" is aria". (4) Marshes and Malaria Some volunteers drank the stagnant water from the mai6hes. They did not develop malaria. (5) Treatment of malaria by using cinchona bark In 17th century, many plants from America were sent back to Europe to be used as medicines. The bark of a tree known as quina-quina was very suitable for curing fevers. Some dishonest merchants began to substitute the bark of another tree; "cinchona" which closely resembled quina-quina. This dishonesty proved much valuable for mankind. Cinchona bark was found to be excellent for treating malaria. Cinchona bark contains quinine that is effective in treating the disease. (6) Work of Laveran In 1878, a French army physician Lavern began to search for the cause of malaria. He took a small amount of blood from a malarial patient and examined it under microscope. He noticed some tiny living creatures. The organism was given a name "Plasmodium". (7) Four major observations about malaria 1. Malaria and marshy areas have some relation. 2. Quinine is an effective drug for treating malaria. 3. Drinking the water of marshes does not cause malaria. 4. Plasmodium is seen in the blood of malarial patients. Hypothesis The hypothesis made regarding malaria was "Plasmodium is the cause of malaria". Deduction Following deduction is drawn from the above mentioned hypothesis. "If the Plasmodium is the cause of malaria then all persons ill with malaria should have Plasmodium in their blood". Experiments The next step was to test the deduction through experiments which were designed as: (i) Experimental Group Blood of 100 malarial patients was examined under microscope. (ii) Control Group Blood of 100 healthy persons was also examined under microscope. Results The results of the experiments showed that almost all malarial patients had Plasmodium in their blood while 7 out of 100 healthy persons had plasmodium in their blood. Now we know that Plasmodium in the blood of healthy people was in incubation period i.e. the period between the entry of Parasite in host and appearance of symptoms. The results were quite convincing and proved that the hypothesis "Plasmodium is the cause of malaria" was true.
Question: 3
How Plasmodium gets into human body?
Answer: 3
It was the next biological problem. The biologists want to learn how plasmodium gets into the blood of man (i) Observations . Biologists had following observations: v Malaria is associated with marshes + Drinking water of marshes does not cause malaria These observations show that plasmodium was not present in the marsh water. But it must be carried by something. That thing comes to marsh water. (ii) Work of A.F.A.King (Lahore board 2012 G 1) In 1883, a physician A.F.A. King listed 20 observations some important observations of king were: (iii)Observations of A.F.A King v People who slept outdoors were more likely to get malaria than those who slept indoors. + People who slept under fine nets were less likely to get malaria than those who did not use such nets v An individual who slept near smoky fire usually did not get malaria. (iv)King's Hypothesis "Mosquitoes are involved in the spread of malaria". (v) Deductions Following deductions were made considering the hypothesis as true i.e; If mosquitoes are involved in the spread of malaria then; Deduction 1 "Plasmodium should be present in mosquitoes". Deduction 2 "A mosquito can get plasmodium by biting a malarial patient." (vi) Experiments of Ronald Ross (Lahore board 2012 G I) Introduction In order to test the above deductions, Ronald Ross, a British army physician working in India in 1880's, performed important experiments. Experiment No. 1 Ross allowed a female Anopheles mosquito to bite a malarial patient. He killed the mosquito some days later and found plasmodium multiplying in mosquito's stomach. The next logical experiment was to allow an infected mosquito to bite a healthy person. If the hypothesis was true, the healthy person would have got malaria but scientists avoid using human beings for experiments. 'Experiment No2. Ross used sparrows and redesigned his experiments. He allowed a female culex mosquito to bite on the sparrows suffering from malaria. Some of the mosquitoes were killed and studied at various times. In each mosquito, Ross found that plasmodium multiplied in the wall of mosquito's stomach and then moved into the mosquito's salivary glands. 'Experiment No. 3 Ross kept some mosquitoes alive in the Second experiment and allowed them to Bite healthy sparrows. Ross found that Saliva of the infected mosquito Containe Plasmodium and these entered the - Sparrow’s blood. When he examined the Anopheles blood of these previously healthy sparrows, he found many plasmodium in it. Conclusion Ross concluded that similar relationship is found in mosquito and plasmodium. (vii) Experiments on Man In the end, the hypothesis that "mosquitoes transmit plasmodium and so are involved in the spread of malaria" was tested by direct experimentation on human beings. In 1898, some Italian Biologists allowed an Anopheles mosquito to bite a malarial patient. The mosquito was kept for a few days and then it was allowed to bite a healthy man. This person became ill with malaria. In this way, it was confirmed that mosquitoes transmit plasmodium and so are involved in the spread of malaria. (viii) Theory: The hypothesis that stand the test of time (often tested and never rejected) is called theory. A theory is supported by a great deal of evidence. (ix) Law and Principle: If a theory survives a doubtful approach and continues to be supported by experimental evidence, t becomes a law or principle. A scientific law is a uniform or constant fact of nature. It is an irrefutable theory. The examples of biological laws are Hardy Weinberg law and Mendel's law of inheritance.
Question: 4
Explain the importance of data organization and data analysis in biological method.
Answer: 4
Question: 5
Describe observations of A.F.A King said experiments of Ronald rose to solve malarial problem.
Answer: 5
In 1883 a physician<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15863631216917050999717"> .</gwmw>A.F.A king listed 20 observation some important observation some important observation of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863631216918117470774">king</gwmw> were.<div><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863631581880010571156">people</gwmw> slept outdoorwere more likely to get malaria <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15863631581881678386559">then</gwmw> those who slept <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15863631581888700127964">indoor</gwmw>.</div><div><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863639458956381842003">people</gwmw> who slept under finenets were less likely to get <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15863639458956080625076">malaria those</gwmw> who did not use such nets and individual who slept neat a smoky fire usually did not get malaria. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863633572210815482469">on</gwmw> the basis of these observation<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863633572211113177854">king</gwmw> suggest a hypothesis<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15863639701918169061005"> .</gwmw></div><div>Mosquitoes transmit <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863634070843538989762">plasmadium</gwmw> and so are involved in the spread of malaria.</div><div><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863635037420545496218">following</gwmw> deduction were made considering <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863634600344445295411">teh</gwmw>hypothesis as true if mosquitoes are <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863634791192623050289">incolved</gwmw> in the spread of malaria then. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863635039957585772848">plasmodium</gwmw>should be present in mosquitoes" mosquitoes can get <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863636377395657717367">plasmodium</gwmw>by biting a malaria patient</div><div>Ronald Ross a British army physician working in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863636755169758388837">india</gwmw>in 1880 performed important experiment, He allowed a Female, Anopheles mosquitoes <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863638090605099852942">to bite</gwmw> a malaria <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863638090600558427653">patients</gwmw> He killed the <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863637511006330426979">masquito</gwmw>some days later and found <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863637669692091687710">plasmodium</gwmw>multiplying in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863638090606239058617">mosquitoes</gwmw> stomach. The next logical experiment was to allow an infected mosquito to bite a healthy person. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863638515264043283440">if</gwmw> hypothesis was true. The healthy person would have got malaria<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15863638653729496061649"> .</gwmw>But scientist <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863638978195046540942">avoid</gwmw> using human beings <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863638978196219580446">for</gwmw> experiment when <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863638978194370132014">result</gwmw> can be so serious.</div>
Question: 6
Define <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863640737031693964890">biological method</gwmw>. Describe the theory and <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863641407344007208257">law stage</gwmw> of biological method.
Answer: 6
The scientific method in which biological problems are solved is termed as biological method<div>Theory:</div><div> When a hypothesis <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863642596722730554231">is given</gwmw> a repeated exposure to experimentation and is not falsified. It <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863642811037343405051">increase</gwmw> biologists confidence in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863642811035136121916">gypothesis</gwmw>. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863643528063714890973">such</gwmw> well-supported hypothesis may be used as the basis for <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863643528062806858096">formulation</gwmw> further hypothesis which are again <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863643528064594534678">proved</gwmw> by experimental result. The hypothesis that stand the best of time are called theory A theory is supported by a greatdeal of evidence<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15863644008621969396529"> .</gwmw> Productive theory keeps on suggesting new hypotheses and so testing goes on Many biologist takes as a challengeand every greater <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863646240963142667092">efforts</gwmw> to <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863644842571317078084">desprove</gwmw>the theory. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15863646193241865746083">if</gwmw> a theory <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15863646193247144253959">survive</gwmw> such doubtful approach and continues to be supported by experimental evidence it becomes a Law of Principle</div>
Question: 7
Write experiments of Ronald Ross?
Answer: 7
Ronald Ross, a <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864063065825485749478">british</gwmw> army physician working in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864073604836705409936">india</gwmw> in 1889's <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864073604837791865972">pergormed</gwmw> important experiments.<div> Ross used sparrows and redesigned his experiment he allowed a female couplingmosquito to bite on the sparrows suffering from malariaSome of the mosquitowere killed and studied at various timeRoss found that <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864064643131772266478">plasmodium</gwmw> multiplied in the wall of mosquito stomach and the moved into mosquito's <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864065053595649526239">saliray</gwmw>glands He kept some mosquitoes alive and <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864065292035473107516">alowed</gwmw> them to bite healthy sparrows <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864065506097388492730">ross</gwmw> found that the saliva of the infe9ctedmosquitocontained <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864065836771410270905">plasmodia</gwmw>and these entered the sparrow<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864066050849791411142">,</gwmw>s blood. When the examined the blood of these previously healthy sparrow<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864066869497306618434"> ,</gwmw> He found. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864066952242007503950">in</gwmw> the end. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864067215007407407666">he</gwmw> hypothesis was <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864067033829783375453">teste</gwmw>by direct experimentation on human beings</div>
Question: 8
Write mathematics as an integral of data organization and analysisin biological method.
Answer: 8
Biologist method also involves the use of applied mathematics to solve biological problems. Major biological <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864077900206598034175">probelms</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864078543108678799694">.</gwmw>In which knowledge of mathematics is used to include gene finding protein <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864078279488217538995">stucture</gwmw> and protein- protein interactionsetc. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864079217204268820977">Bioinfomatics</gwmw> refers to the <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864079217209302297476">computational</gwmw> and statistical techniques for the analysis of biological data
Question: 9
Explainimportance of data organization and data analysis in biological method.
Answer: 9
In order to formulate and then to test hypothesis scientist called and organize data prior to conducting an experimentfor a scientist to describedata collection method.<div> Data analysis:</div><div> Data analysis is necessaryto prove or disprove a hypothesis by experimentation, it is done through the application of statistical method <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864084737786238224932">i</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864084737789323471043">,</gwmw>eratio an proportion when a relation between two numbers a and b expressed in term of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864084665113249726784">quotient</gwmw>. It is calledthe ratio of one number to the other. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864085391774197078754">Ratio</gwmw> may be expressed by putting a division or colon<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864085391775381761841">(</gwmw>:) mark between the two numbers.</div><div> For example:</div><div> The ratio between 50 <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864085748191909383396">malarial</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864085748192807164556">patient</gwmw>and 150 normalperson 1:3</div>
Question: 10
Write four steps of solving biologicalproblems.
Answer: 10
Biologist takes following steps.<div>&gt; Recognition of biological</div><div>&gt; Problem</div><div>&gt; Observation</div><div>&gt; Hypothesis</div><div>&gt; Deduction</div><div>&gt; Ex<span style="">perimentation</span></div><div>&gt; Summarization of result</div><div><span style="">&gt; Reporting the result.</span></div><div> The detail of these steps <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864090802929308945740">are</gwmw> as under.</div><div>1<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864091071353381635343"> )</gwmw> Recognition of the <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864091071358860173637">biologist</gwmw> problem:</div><div> Biologists go for adapting biological method when they <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864091439606002287491">are encounter some</gwmw> biological problem. A biological problem is a question related to living organisms that is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15864092376853326257503">either asked by</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864092376854437064539">some one</gwmw> or comes in biologist mind by himself.</div><div>2) Observation:</div><div> As a first step solvinga biological problem. Biologist recalls his or her previous observation or make new one's observation are made five senses of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864095167227331995587">vision hearing</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864095167228823911873">smell teste</gwmw> and touch may be both Qualitative and Quantititative <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864095167223775298632">observation</gwmw>.</div><div>3) Formulation of Hypotheses.</div><div> Observation <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864095895838525465063">do not become</gwmw> scientific observation <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864095725469790892863">untill</gwmw> they are organized and relate to a question. The tentative <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864096231647489654510">explantion</gwmw> of observation is called Hypothesis. A hypothesis should have the following characteristics.</div><div>. It should be a general statement</div><div>. It should be a tentative idea,</div><div>. It should agree with available observation</div><div>. It should be kept as simple as possible.</div><div> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864097958632437551382">it</gwmw> should be testable and Potentially feasible.</div><div>4) Deduction:</div><div> In the next step biologist draws deduction from hypothesis deduction are the logical consequences of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864099754743327116843">purspose</gwmw>a hypothesis is taken as true and expected result</div><div>5) The most basic step of biological method is experimentation. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864101925377767204731">biologist</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864101925379939330762">perform</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864101925375804052017">experiment</gwmw> tosee if <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864101925375920412569">hypothesis</gwmw> are true or not The deduction, which are frown from hypothesis are subjected to rigorous testing<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864101368678533122670"> .</gwmw>Through experimentationbiologist learn which hypothesis is correct</div><div>6) Summarization of result:</div><div> Biologist <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864103875897336383881">gather</gwmw> actual quantitative data <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864103494368917047023">rom</gwmw>experiment data from each of the group are then averaged and compared Statistically.</div><div>7) Reporting the result</div><div> Biologist publish their findings in scientific journals and books<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864104640907993402118"> .</gwmw> In talk national and international meeting and in seminars at colleges and universities. Publishing of result is an essential part of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864105283326238041450">scientific method</gwmw>.</div><div><br></div>