Waves as carriers of Energy: Energy can be transferred from one place to another through waves.
Example: When we shake the stretched string up and down, we provide our muscular energy to the string. As a result, a set of wave can be seen travelling across the string. The vibrating force from the hand disturbs the particles of string and sets them in motion. These particles then transfer their energy to the adjacent particles in the string. Energy is thus transferred from one place of the medium to other.
Dependence: The amount of energy carried by the wave depends on the distance of the stretched string from its rest position. That is the energy in a wave depends on the wave amplitude of wave. If amplitude and frequency are greater than more energy will be transfer. Example: If we shake the string faster, we give more energy per second to produce wave of higher frequency, and wave delivers more energy per second to the particles of the string as it moves forward.
Transfer in Water: Water waves also transfer energy from one place to another.
Example: If we drop a stone into pond of water. Water waves will be produce on the surface of water and will travel outward. Now if we place a cork at some distance from the falling stone. When waves reacts the cork, it will move up and down along with the motion of the water particles by getting energy from the wave. This shows that water waves like other waves transfer energy from one place to another without transferring in matter.
Define physics and explain its branches.
Physics is a branch of science that deals with matter, energy and their relationship.
Branches of Physics:
Following ate branches of physics:
It is the study of motion of objects, its causes and effects.
It deals with the nature of heat , modes of transfer and effects of heat
It deals with the physical aspects of sound waves , their production, properties and applications.
4- Light :
It is the study of the physical aspects of light, its properties, working and use of optical instruments.
5- Electricity and Magnetism:
It is the study of the charges at rest and in motion their effects and their relationship with magnetism.
6- Atomic Physics:
it is the study of the structure and properties of atom
7- Nuclear Physics:
It deals with the properties and behavior of nuclei and the particle within the nuclei:
8- Plasma Physics:
It is the study of production, properties of the ionic state of matter
It is the study of the internal structure of the Earth.
A Chocolate wrapper is 6.7 cm long and 5.4cm wide. Calculate its area upto reasonable number of significant figures.
Length = 6.7cm
Width = 5.4cm
Area = ?
Area = length x width putting the values
= 6.7 x 5.4
= 36.2 cm²
Define Physical quantities. Also write its types.
All measurable quantities are called physical quantities such temperature.
A physical quantity possesses at least two characteristics in common. One is its numerical magnitude and the other is the unit in which it is measured.
If the length of a student is 104 cm then 104 is its numerical magnitude and centimeter is the unit of measurement.
Types of Physical Quantities:
Physical quantities are divided into base quantities and derived quantities
1- Base Quantities:
There are seven physical quantities which form the foundation for other physical quantities, These physical quantities are called the base quantities. These are length, mass, time, electric current. Temperature, intensity of light and the amount of a substance.
2- Derived Quantities:
Those physical quantities which are expressed in terms of base quantities are called the derived quantities. These include area, volume. speed, force, work, electric charge, electric potential etc.
What are the significant figures in the following measurements?
1- 1.66 x10^-27kg
= 1.66/100000000000000000000000000 kg
Significant figures =3
What is meant by Vernier callipers? Write its construction.
A vernier callipers consist of two jaws. One is a fixed jaw with main scale attached to it. Main scale has centimeter and millimeter marks on it the other jaw is a moveable jaw, it has a vernier scale having 10 divisions over it such that each of its divisions is 0.9mm.The difference between one small division on main scale division and one vernier scale division is 0.1mm. It is called least count of the vernier callipers.
Least count of =Smallest reading on main scale /no. Of decision on vernier scale
LC = 1mm/10divisions = 0.1mm
LC = 0.1mm = 0.01cm
Zero Error and Zero Correction:
First of all find the zero error. To find the zero error close the jaws of Vernie, callipers gently.Zero error will exist if zero line of the vernier scale is not coinciding with the zero of main scale
Knowing the zero error , necessary correction can be made to find the correct measurement is called zero correction.
Taking a Reading on Vernier Callipers:
Find the diameter of a solid cylinder using vernier Callipers.Close the jaws till they press the opposite sides of the object gently.
Note the complete divisions of main scale past the vernier scale zero in a tabular form. Next find the vernier scale division that is coinciding with any division on the main scale. multiply it by least count of vernier Callipers and add it in the main scale reading. This is equal to the diameter of the solid cylinder.
Add zero correction (Z.C) to get correct measurement Repeat the above procedure and record at least three observations with the solid cylinder displaced or rotated each time
Your hair grow at the rate of 1mm per day . Find their growth rate in nms^-1
Rate of growth = 1mm per day
= 11.57 x10^-9 ms^-1
= 11.57 nms^-1
Define science and describe how science was divided into various branches
Science :The knowledge gained through observations and experiments is called science .The wor science is derived from the Latin word "scientia", which means knowledge. Science was divided into various branches initially as described below;
Define physics and explain its branches
Physics: the branch of science which deals with the study of matter, energy and their mututal relationship is called physics
Branches of physics
Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the study of matter, energy and their mutual relationship is called physics
What is the importance of physics in our daily life<div><br></div>
Law and principle of physics help us to understand nature
The rapid progress in science during the recent years has become possible due to discoveries and inventions in the field of physics. The technologies are the applications of scientific principles. Most of the technologies of our modern society throughout the world are related to physics. For example, car is made on the principles of mechanics and a refrigerator is based on principles of thermodynamics. In or daily lifer there are lots of applications of physics . For example in electrical appliances (air conditioners, washing machine),means of transport( cars, aero-planes ), means of communication (radio, T.V, Telephone) etc
Define physical quantities and explain its types
Physical quantities: All measurable quantities are called physical quantities
Example: length, mass, time, temperature etc
Define unit and what is international system of units
Unit: A standard quantity needed for measuring unknown quantities is called unit.
Example: Standard unit for measurement of mass is kilogram(kg), For length is meter(m) and for time is seconds(s)
What are prefixes, explain it with examples
Prefixes; The words or letters added before a unit and stand for multiples or sub multiples of that unit are known as prefixes
Examples; kilo, mega, nano, micro etc.
Note ; The pre fixes are useful to express very large or small quantities.
double pre fixes are note used for examples no pre fix is used with kilogramme
Define scientific notation. describe it with examples
Scientific Notation; In scientific notation a number is expressed as some power of ten multiplied by a number between 1 and 10. A simple but scientific way to write large or small numbers is to express them in some power of ten.
The Moon is 3.84*10m. This form of expressing a number is called the standard form or scientific notation. This saves writing down or interpreting a large numbers of zeros
What are measuring instruments, write the name of some length measuring instruments
Measuring instruments; Measuring instruments are used to measure various physical quantities such as length, mass time , volume etc. measuring instruments used in the past for example sundial, water cock and other time measuring devices used around 1300 AD were quite crude/ on the other hand, digital clocks and watches used now a day are highly reliable and accurate
Explain the construction and use of meter rule and measuring tape.
Meter Rule: meter rule is a length measuring instrument and is commonly used in laboratories to measure length of an object or distance between two points
Give construction and use of vernier calipers
Definition: an accuracy greater than 1mm can be obtained by using instruments such as vernier caliper s.
an instrument which can measure length correct up to 0.1 mm is called vernier caliper.
Describe the working of vernier caliper
Zero Error: The defect present in any instrument is called its zero error. TO find zero error, close the jaws of vernier caliper gently. If zero line of the vernier scale coincides with the zero of the main scale then zero error is zero.
What is screw gauge. How a screw gauge is used to measure diameter of thin wire
Definition: An instrument which can measure length correct up to 0.01 mm or 0.001 cm is called a screw gauge
Micrometer screw gauge: An instrument which can measure length correct up to 10th part of millimeter is called micro meter screw gauge
Write a note on mass measuring instruments
Introduction: Pots were used to measure grain in various part of the world in the ancient time . However, balances were also in use by Greeks and Romans.
What is the most accurate balance . Explain with examples
The mass of one rupee con is done using different balances as given below
write a note on stopwatch and its types
Definition: A stopwatch is used to measure the time interval of an event
Types of stop watch: There are two types of stopwatches:
mechanical stopwatch, Digital stopwatch
What is measuring cylinder. Explain it
Measuring cylinder: A measuring cylinder is a graduated glass cylinder used to measure the volume of liquid and also to fine the volume of an irregular shaped solid object
Write note on significant figure
Significant figure: All the accurately known digits and the first doubtful digit in as expression are called significant figures. It reflects the precision of measure value of a physical quantity
Explanation: The value of a physical quantity is expressed by a number, along with suitable units. The accuracy in the measurement of a physical quantity depends upon
The quality of the measuring instrument
The skills of the observer
The number of observation made
The improvement in the quality of measurement can be made by using better measuring instrument, the more is value of precision more significant figure means greater precision