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An important facility for 9th class students preparing for short questions biology 9th class chapter 1 of BISE. Get hundreds of questions to prepare and get better marks in 9th biology
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Question: 1
Define biology.
Answer: 1
biology is the scientific study of life. The word biology has been derived from two Greek words, "bios" meaning life and 'logos' meaning thought or reasoning.
Question: 2
Define Genetics.
Answer: 2
The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics, Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other. Example: Eye colour, height.
Question: 3
Define Science.
Answer: 3
Science is the study in which observations are made, experiments are done and logical conclusions are drawn in order to understand the principles of nature.
Question: 4
Define embryology.
Answer: 4
It is teh study of teh development of an embryo to new individual.
Question: 5
Define Molecular biology.
Answer: 5
this branch , deals with the study of the molecules of like e.g. water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
Question: 6
Define prokaryotes.
Answer: 6
The unicellular organism that do not have distinct nucleus are grouped as prokaryotes. Example: Bacteria.
Question: 7
Define biotechnology.
Answer: 7
It deals practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind. Example: Insulin
Question: 8
What are different groups of living organisms?
Answer: 8
Prokaryotes, Protist , Fungi, Plants, Animals
Question: 9
Define microbiology.
Answer: 9
The division of biology, which deals the study of microorganisms such as bacteria, is called microbiology.
Question: 10
Differentiate between morphology and anatomy.
Answer: 10
Morphology:The branch of biology, which deals with the study of the structures and forms of living organisms is called morphology. Example: Study of eye etc.
Question: 11
What do you mean by horticulture and how is it related agriculture?
Answer: 11
Horticulture: It deals with the art of gardening. A horticulturist works for the betterment of existing varieties and for the production of new varieties of ornamental plants and fruit plants.
Question: 12
Define environmental biology.
Answer: 12
The branch of biology, which deals with the study of the interactions between the organisms and their environment.
Question: 13
What are protists?
Answer: 13
The unicellular or simple multicellular organisms with distinct nuclei are called protest. Examples: Euglena, Paramecium, Green algae etc.
Question: 14
What is Medicine and Surgery?
Answer: 14
The profession of medicine deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in human in surgery the body parts may be repaired replaced or removed.
Question: 15
What are fossils?
Answer: 15
The remains of extinct organisms are called fossils.
Question: 16
What is studied in profession of farming?
Answer: 16
It deals with the development and maintenance of different types of farm. For example in some farms. Animals breeding technologics are used for the production of animals which are better protein and milk sources. In poultry farms chicken and eggs are produced.
Question: 17
Define biophysics.
Answer: 17
It deals with the study of the principles of physic,which are applicable to biological phenomena , for example there is a similarity between the working principles of lever in physics and limbs of animal in biology
Question: 18
What is parasite?
Answer: 18
The organisms that take food and shelter from living hosts and in return harm them are called parasite.
Question: 19
Define taxonomy.
Answer: 19
The study of the naming and classification of organisms into groups and sub groups is called taxonomy.
Question: 20
Define parasitology?
Answer: 20
The branch of biology, which deals with the study of parasites is called parasitology.
Question: 21
Define immunology.
Answer: 21
The study of the immune system of animals which defends the body against invading microbes in called immunology.
Question: 22
Define Pharmacology.
Answer: 22
The branch of biology in which we study of drugs and their effects on system of human body is called pharmacology.
Question: 23
Define paleontology
Answer: 23
The study of fossils is called paleontology.The remains of extinct organisms are called fossils .
Question: 24
What are the contributions of Bu Ali Sina?
Answer: 24
He is honoured as the fonder of medicine and called as Avicenna in the west. He was a physician, philosopher, astronomer and poet. One of his books"Al-Qanun fial-Tib" is known as the cannon of medicine in West.
Question: 25
Define Sociobiology.
Answer: 25
This branch deals with the study of social behavior of the animals that make societics
Question: 26
What are prokaryotes?
Answer: 26
The organisms whose cells do not have distinct nucleus, lack membrane bounded structure like mitochondria and have limited number and types of organelles are called prokaryotes. e.g. bacteria
Question: 27
Write down the contributions of Abdul Malik Asmai.
Answer: 27
Abdul Malik is considered the first Muslim scientist who studied animals in detail. His famous writing include Al-abil(Camel)", "Al-Khail (horse)", 'Al-Wahoosh (animal0" and " Kalq-al-ansan.
Question: 28
What are eukaryotes?
Answer: 28
The organisms whose cells do have distinct nucleus, membrane bounded structures and large number and types of organelles. Example. animal cells.
Question: 29
What are teh functions of orgenelles?
Answer: 29
Each type of organelle is specialized to perform as specific function. Example: Mitochondria specialized for cellular respiration. Ribosomes are specialized for protein synthesis.
Question: 30
What is meant by bio element?
Answer: 30
The elements, which take part in making body mass of living things are called bio elements these are 16
Question: 31
Define Forestry.
Answer: 31
It forestry, professional look after natural forests and advises to the government for planting and growing artificial forests.
Question: 32
What are elements?
Answer: 32
Elements are pure substances, which are made up of same kind of atoms having same atomic numbers.
Question: 33
Define Biomolecule.
Answer: 33
The stable particle which is made by atoms of bioelements i.e. carbon, nitrogen, sulphur etc through konic or covalent bonding is called biomolecules. Types: Macromolecules ,Macromolecules
Question: 34
Define organelle.
Answer: 34
Biomolecules assemble in a particular way and form organelles. These ae sub-cellular structure. Example: Prokaryotic cell , Eukaryotes cell
Question: 35
Describe major contributions of Jabir Bin Hayan.
Answer: 35
Jabir Bin Hayyan introduced experimental investigation in chemistry and also wrote a number of books on plants and animals . HIs famous books are "Al-Nabatat" and "Al-Haywan.
Question: 36
Name major types of animal tissues.
Answer: 36
There are four major types of animals tissues. Epithelial tissues, Connective tissues, Nervous tissue, Muscular tissue
Question: 37
Define Molecule.
Answer: 37
atoms of different elements combine with each other through ionic or covalent bonding to make a stable particle, which is called molecule.
Question: 38
What is volvox?
Answer: 38
Volvox is a green algae found in water that shows colonial organization. Hundreds of Volvox cells make a colony.
Question: 39
Define tissue.
Answer: 39
We can define a tissue as a group of similar cells specialized for the performance of a common function. Example ; Animal tissue and plant tissue.
Question: 40
Name any four unicellular organisms.
Answer: 40
Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Virus
Question: 41
Name three types of cellular organizations?
Answer: 41
These are . Unicellular organization, Colonial organization, Multicellular organization
Question: 42
Define organ system.
Answer: 42
Different organs performing related functions are organized together in the form of an organ system. In organ system each organ performs a specific function.
Question: 43
Which membrane is present both in prokaryotes & eukaryotes.
Answer: 43
Cell membrane.
Question: 44
Define organ.
Answer: 44
In higher multicellular organisms, more than one types of tissues having related functions are organized together to make a unit, called organ. Example: Stomach and liver etc.
Question: 45
Define population.
Answer: 45
A populationis defined as a group of organisms of the same species located at the same place, in the same time. Example: Human population in Pakistan in 2019 comprises of 173.5 million individuals.
Question: 46
Define community.
Answer: 46
A community is the assemblage of different populations,interacting with one another with in the same environment. Example: A forest may be considered as a community. It includes different plants, micro-organismm,fungi and animal species.
Question: 47
Difference between unicellular and multicellular.
Answer: 47
Unicellular:An organism which is made up of one cell is called unicellular organism. Example: Paramecium, amoeba etc
Question: 48
Define Zoology:
Answer: 48
This division of biology deals with the study of animals. example: The study of frog, human etc.
Question: 49
What is habitat and how it is different from community?
Answer: 49
Habitat: It means the area of the environment in which organism lives. Community: In community different populations interacting with each other, one another live with the same environment, but in habitat we talk about an organism's living area.
Question: 50
Define pressure and flow mechanism
Answer: 50
In pressure-flow mechanism , food is moved from sources to sinks . At source (sugars) is moved by active transport into the sieve tubes of phloem . Due to the presence of sugar in sieve tubes , their solute concentration increases and water enters them from xylem (via osmosis) . This results in higher pressure of water in these tubes , which drives solution of food towards sink. At the sink end , food is unloaded by active transport . Water also exists from the seive tube . The exit of water decreases pressure in seive tubes , which causes a mass flow from the higher pressure at the source to the now lowered pressure at the sink
Question: 51
Which organs make digestive system.
Answer: 51
Oral cavity,Stomach, Liver, Pancreas, small intestine, large intestine.
Question: 52
Define species.
Answer: 52
A species is defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
Question: 53
What is chronic bronchitis?
Answer: 53
It usually last a about three months to two years and it is develop by bronchi
Question: 54
What is the biosphere level?
Answer: 54
The part of the Earth inhabited by organisms'communities is known as biosphere. It constitutes all ecosystems (areas where living organisms interact with the nonliving components of the environment) and is also called the zone of life on Earth.
Question: 55
What are pleural membranes and pleural fluid?
Answer: 55
Each lung is covered by outer and inner pleural membranes. Between these two membranes there is a pleural fluid which provides lubrication for expansion and contraction of lungs.
Question: 56
Scientific name of frog.
Answer: 56
Frog live in the both water and terriestial medium. IT Belong TO Class Amphibian,its scientific name is Rana tigrina.
Question: 57
What do you meant by transpiration Explain it .
Answer: 57
Transpiration is the loss of water from plant surface through evaporation . This loss may occur through stomatal in leaves through the cuticle present on leaf epidermis and through special opening called lenticels present in the stem of some plant . Most of transpiration occurs through stomata and is called stomatal transpiration
Question: 58
What is larynx?
Answer: 58
The upper most part of the trachea is fibrous bands called vocal cord. When air also called voice box.
Question: 59
Name some plant tissue.
Answer: 59
Epidermal tissue, Ground tissues
Question: 60
What are alveoli?
Answer: 60
These are cluster of pouches which form the respiratory surface in human body. Each alveolus is 3 sac like structure lined by a single layer of epithelial cells. It is bounded by a net-work of capillaries.
Question: 61
Write two advantages of Brassica plant/Mustard plant.
Answer: 61
Advantages of Brassica plant is. the plant body of Brassica is used as vegetable. Its seeds are used for extracting oil
Question: 62
What is emphysema?
Answer: 62
It is respiratory disorder in which break down of alveolar wall occur. It result in larger sac but with has surface area for gaseous exchange.
Question: 63
Which organs make digestive system?
Answer: 63
Oral cavity, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine
Question: 64
Define botany.
Answer: 64
This division of biology deals with the study of plants. Example: The study of Rose, mustard plant. etc
Question: 65
Who many types of bronchitis?
Answer: 65
It usually lasts about two weaks. It has no permanent damage.
Question: 66
What is the function of reproductive part of plant?
Answer: 66
Flowers take part in sexual reproduction and produce fruits and seeds.
Question: 67
What is epiglottis?
Answer: 67
Ans: The glottis is guarded by a flap of tissues and it also prevents food to enter into larynx
Question: 68
Write names of three main divisions of biology.
Answer: 68
The name of three divisions of biology. Zoology, Botany, Microbiology.
Question: 69
Name major types of animal tissue.
Answer: 69
Epithelial tissues ,Connective tissues, Nervous tissue, Muscular tissue
Question: 70
What structure are responsible for gaseous exchange in leaves and young stems?
Answer: 70
Stomata and Lenticels.
Question: 71
What structures are responsible for woody stems and mature roots?
Answer: 71
Question: 72
What are causes of lung cancer?
Answer: 72
(i) Carcinogens present in tobacco smoke
(ii) Ionizing radiations (iii)Viral infection
Question: 73
What is diaphragm?
Answer: 73
It is a thick muscular, dome shaped structure present below the lungs. It helps in breathing.
Question: 74
What are lenticles?
Answer: 74
In woody stems and mature roots. the gaseous exchange. So, there are certain p lenticles allow air to pass through it.
Question: 75
Define pulmonary and systematic circulation ?
Answer: 75
Pulmonary circulation : The pathways on which deoxygenated blood is carried from the heart to the lungs and in return oxygenated blood is carried from the lungs to heart is called pulmonary circulation
Question: 76
Different between bronchi and bronchioles
Answer: 76
Trachea divided into two branches which are called bronchi. Each bronchus further divided into very fine tubes called bronchioles.
Question: 77
What is glottis?
Answer: 77
Glottis is a narrow opening at the floe larynx through glottis.
Question: 78
Define cellular respiration?
Answer: 78
The process in which the C-H bond of food is broken down into CO2 and H2O by using oxygen by oxidation reduction reaction is called cellular respiration.
Question: 79
What is difference between breathing and respiration?
Answer: 79
Respiration and breathing are not the some process. Respiration is a mechanical and biochemical process while breathing is just a mechanical process.
Question: 80
Define breathing?
Answer: 80
The physical movement movement associated with gaseous exchange
Question: 81
What is bronchitis?
Answer: 81
It is the inflammation of the bronchi & bronchioles. It result in more secretions of mucous int, these tubes. It leads to swelling of tubes.

Question: 82
Define gaseous exchange?
Answer: 82
The process of taking oxygen in and giving out CO2 is called gaseous exchange. It is of 2 types.
(i) Breathing
(ii) Cellular respiration
Question: 83
Define Homeostasis ?
Answer: 83
Homeostasis may be defined as the maintenance of internal conditions of body at equilibrium despite changes in the external environment
Question: 84
Name some respiratory disorders.
Answer: 84
Bronchitis, Emphyseinar,Phneumonia, Asthma, Lung cancer etc.
Question: 85
Name parts of air passageways
Answer: 85
Question: 86
What are bad effect of smoking?
Answer: 86
Ans: (i) Smoking causes cancer in kidney oral Cavity, larynx, breast, bladder
(ii) Smoking effect air passage way.
(iii) Smoking effect circulatory system.
(iv) Smoking cause arteriosclerosis (Increase production of blood platelets) and narrowing the arteries.
Question: 87
What is pneumonia?
Answer: 87
It is an infection of lungs. If it affects both Iungs is called double pneumonia
Question: 88
What is the treatment of Bronchitis?
Answer: 88
Antibiotics are used to treat the patient.
Question: 89
Why do organisms need energy?
Answer: 89
The organisms need energy in the form of ATP for their activities and processes.
Question: 90
What are the % ages of inspired air and expired air?
Answer: 90
21 % 02 in inspired air 16 % 02 in expired air
Question: 91
What is the significance of C-Shaped cartilaginous rings of trachea?
Answer: 91
These prevent the trachea from collapsing
Question: 92
What are causes of pneumonia?
Answer: 92
Pneumonia is mostly caused by a bacterium streptococcus. It is also caused by virus or by fungal infection.
Question: 93
What are symptoms of Asthma?
Answer: 93
Shortness of breath, Wheezing. Chronic cough. Tightness of chest.
Question: 94
What are the causes of cancer?
Answer: 94
(i) Smoking
(ii) Ionizing radiation
(iii) Viral infection
Question: 95
What are the homeostatic organs in man ?
Answer: 95
Main homeostatic organs in man are :
1: Lungs
2: Skin
3: Kidneys
Question: 96
What are causes of asthma?
Answer: 96
(i) Allergens.
(ii) Irritants
Question: 97
What are causes of bronchitis?
Answer: 97
It is caused by viruses, bacteria or exposure to chemical irritants
Question: 98
What is the rate of breathing during exercise?
Answer: 98
30-40 times minute.
Question: 99
What are two phases of breathing?
Answer: 99
(i) Inspiration
(ii) Expiation
Question: 100
What is lung cancer?
Answer: 100
It is disease of uncontrolled cell divisions in tissue of lungs.
Question: 101
What are symptoms of bronchitis?
Answer: 101
Cough, Mild wheezing, Chills, Shortness of breath.
Question: 102
What is asthma?
Answer: 102
It is chronic inflammation of bronchi which results in swelling and narrowing of air passageways.
Question: 103
Where is located the respiratory centre?
Answer: 103
It is located in the brain. It is sensitive to the concentration of CO2
Question: 104
Does smoking increases chances of tuberculosis and pneumonia ?
Answer: 104
Yes , smoking increases chances of tuberculosis 2-4 times and pneumonia by 4 times
Question: 105
What is renal medulla ?
Answer: 105
Renal medulla is the inner part of kidney part of kidney and is pale red in colour
Question: 106
What is rate of breathing at rest?
Answer: 106
16-20 times minute.
Question: 107
What is treatment of Asthma?
Answer: 107
(i) Bronchiodilators(ii) Antibiotics
Question: 108
What are symptoms of pneumonia?
Answer: 108
Cold that is followed by a high fever, shivering, cough with sputum production, Shortness of breath, skin purplish due to the poor oxygenation.
Question: 109
What is the major cause of emphysema?
Answer: 109
Question: 110
What is the effect of monoxide present in tobacco smoke ?
Answer: 110
Co in tobacco smoke decrease the O2carrying capacity of heamoglobin
Question: 111
What are allergens ?
Answer: 111
Allergens are the chemical or substances that can irritate the respiratory that are called as allergens . For example pollens ,fragrant particles ,dust particles etc
Question: 112
Differential between inspiration and expiration
Answer: 112
Intake of air from atmosphere into lungs is called inspiration and in expiration expelled out.
Question: 113
What are bronchiodilators?
Answer: 113
These are chemicals which dilate the bronchioles. These are given to asthma patients in the form of inhalers.
Question: 114
Does smoking effect only lungs ?
Answer: 114
No, smoking may also effect other organs of body e.g kidneys, oral cavity , larynx , breast , bladder , pancreas etc
Question: 115
What is treatment of pneumonia?
Answer: 115
(i) Vaccines prevent pneumonia.
(ii) Antibiotics are used.
Question: 116
Is hydrogen is the excretory product of plants?
Answer: 116
No , hydrogen is not a excretory product of plant
Question: 117
What are the major causes of kidney stones?
Answer: 117
(i) Diet containing more greeny vegetables, salts etc.
(ii) Recurring urinary tract infections.
(iii) Less intake of water.
(iv) Alcohol consumption.
Question: 118
What is the treatment of emphysema?
Answer: 118
Drug therapy , Antibiotics
Question: 119
How many different chemicals are found in cigarette smoke?
Answer: 119
Over 4000
Question: 120
Differentiate between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins .
Answer: 120
Fat soluble vitamins :
1: Cooking or heating destroy them less readily
2: These are much less excreted from the body , so their deficiency in body is less common
Question: 121
What is W.H.O ?
Answer: 121
W.H.O means World Health Organization
Question: 122
How many carcinogens are found in cigarette smoke?

Answer: 122
Over 50
Question: 123
What is guttation ?
Answer: 123
The removal of water in the form of drops through special pores present at leaf tips or edges called guttation
Question: 124
Define Macro molecules?
Answer: 124
Micromolecules are with low molecular weight e.g glucose water etc and macro moleculers with high molecular weight e.g strafe pratcins lipids etc.
Question: 125
What is halophytes ?
Answer: 125
Halophytes are the plants which live in sea water and are adapted to salty environment
Question: 126
What is the effect of smoking on teeth ?
Answer: 126
Smoking causes weakening and staining of teeth . The loss of teeth is 2-3 times higher in smokes than in non-smokes
Question: 127
What are excretory products of plants ?
Answer: 127
The excretory products of plants include extra carbon dioxide , oxygen , water resins , gums mucilages , latx etc
Question: 128
Explain fluid mosaic model ?
Answer: 128
The fluid mosaic model explain the internal structure of cell membrane according to it cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer in which protein molecules are embedded . The lipid bilayer gives elasticity and fluidity to the cell membrane . Small amount of carbohydrates is also present which combines with protein to form Glycoprotein or with lipid to form Glycolipid . In some eukaryotes small amount of cholesterol is also present in lipid bilayer
Question: 129
What is the treatment of lungs cancer ?
Answer: 129
1: Chemotherapy 2: Radiotherapy
Question: 130
What size weight of kidney ?
Answer: 130
Length : 10cm
Width : 5cm
Thickness : 4cm
Weight : 120 g
Question: 131
What are the symptoms of emphysema?
Answer: 131
Shortness of breath, Fatigue, weight loss
Question: 132
What is metabolic wastes
Answer: 132
The waste produced during the metabolism of body . That may harm the body is called metabolic waste
Question: 133
Define osmosis ?
Answer: 133
It is the movement of water from hypotonic solution to hypertonic solution through semi permeable membrane . Osmosis is the process which helps in opening and closing of stomata
Question: 134
What is difference between strong electrolyte and weak electrolyte ?
Answer: 134
Strong electrolyte:The electrolytes which ionize almost completely in Their aqueous solutions and produce more ions, are called strong electrolytes.
Question: 135
Define osmoregulation ?
Answer: 135
It is the maintenance of the amounts of water and salts in body fluids . It is done by kidneys and skin
Question: 136
What are preventive measures of lung cancer?
Answer: 136
1: Elimination of tobacco smoking
2: Cessation of smoking
Question: 137
What is the colour and shape of kidneys ?
Answer: 137
Colour : Dark-red
Shape : Bean - shape
Question: 138
What is renal cortex ?
Answer: 138
Renal cortex is the outer part of kidney and has reddish colour
Question: 139
Give function of urinary bladder .
Answer: 139
It temporarily stores urine until it is released from body
Question: 140
Define transpiration .
Answer: 140
The loss of water in the form of vapours from the plant surface is called transpiration . It occurs through leaves
Question: 141
What are xerophytes and how they reduce water loss ?
Answer: 141
Xerophytes are the plants which live in dry environment . They have thick , waxy cuticle over their epidermis and less number of stomata to reduce water loss from internal tissues
Question: 142
What are papillary ducts?
Answer: 142
Many collecting ducts join together to form several hundred papillary ducts
Question: 143
What is location of kidney?
Answer: 143
They are located against the back wall of abdominal cavity just below diaphragm , one on either side of vertebral column
Question: 144
Write the parts of urinary system ?
Answer: 144
1: A pair of kidneys
2: A pair of ureters
3: A urinary bladder
4: A urethra
Question: 145
What is stimulus ? Give example
Answer: 145
Any change in external or internal environment which can provoke a response is called stimulus e.g heat ,cold , pressure , sound , waves etc
Question: 146
Write the function of kidney ?
Answer: 146
Function of kidney :
1: It filters water, salts ,urea , uric acid etc from the blood and from urine
2: It maintains salts and water balance in body fluids
Question: 147
What is passive smoking?What is its effect?
Answer: 147
Inhalation of smoke from another's smoking, is known as passive smoking. It may cause lung cancer.
Question: 148
What is excretion ?
Answer: 148
It is the elimination of metabolic wastes especially nitrogenous wastes (e.g urea ) from the body . It is done by urinary system
Question: 149
What is collecting duct?
Answer: 149
The distal convoluted tubules of many nephrons open in a single opening which collect the material, this opening is called collecting duct
Question: 150
What are the harmful effects of dehydration?
Answer: 150
Severe dehydration may result in cardiovascular problems
Question: 151
How stones are formed in kidney?
Answer: 151
When urine becomes concentrated, crystals of calcium oxalate, calcium and ammonium phosphate, uric acid etc. are formed in it. Such large crystals cannot pass in urine and form hard deposits called kidney stones.
Question: 152
What are the afferent and efferent arterioles ?
Answer: 152
Afferent arterioles from glomerulus's . Efferent arterioles from glomerulus
Question: 153
What is coordination ?
Answer: 153
The tissues or organs in body of multicellular , organisms work together performing their task as the needs of the whole body . This is called coordination . It has two types
1: Chemical coordination
2: Nervous coordination
Question: 154
. What are three main steps of urine formation?
Answer: 154
(i) Pressure filtration
(ii)Selective re-absorption
(iii)Tubuler Secretion
Question: 155
Write function of ureter .
Answer: 155
Ureter in the tube which carry urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
Question: 156
What is Science
Answer: 156
Science is the study in which observations are made experiments are done and logical conclusions are drawn in order to understand the principles of nature
Question: 157
What is the signification of water in humans?
Answer: 157
Water functions as the environment in which water-soluble foodstuff is absorbed in the intestines and waste product are eliminated in urine. Water maintains body temperature through evaporation. Nearly all life-sustaining chemical reactions requires an aqueous (watery) environment.
Question: 158
Difference between Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
Answer: 158
Glomerulus : Glomerulus is a network of capillaries present inside the Bowman's capsule
Question: 159
Which regards are used to test proteins , lipids m glucose , and starch
Answer: 159
Macromolecules : Proteins , lipids , glucose (reducing sugar ),starch
Question: 160
What are pyramids ?
Answer: 160
Renal medulla consists of several cone shaped areas , which bare called pyramids
Question: 161
What is Hilus ?
Answer: 161
It is a depression near centre of the concave area of kidney through which ureter leaves kidney and other structures enter or leave kidney
Question: 162
What is dialysis?What are its types?
Answer: 162
It is the cleaning of blood by artificial methods. (i) Peritoneal dialysis (ii) Haemodialysis
Question: 163
Define Genetics?
Answer: 163
The study of inheritance the terms-mission of characters from one generation to the other.
Question: 164
What is function of cytoplasm ?
Answer: 164
Function :
1: It provides space for the proper functioning of organelles
2: It acts as size for various biochemical reactions such as glycolysis which occurs in cytoplasm
Question: 165
What do you mean by colony?Give Example.
Answer: 165
Prdueing organisms which are genetically identical to one another.
Question: 166
Which system of human is called urinary system ?
Answer: 166
The excretory system of human is the urinary system
Question: 167
Define thermoregulation
Answer: 167
It is the maintenance of internal body temperature
Question: 168
What is a renal tube ? What are its parts ?
Answer: 168
It is the part of nephron which starts after Bowman's capsule
Its parts are:
a: Proximal convoluted tubule
b: Loop of henle
c: Distal convoluted tubule
Question: 169
How does vitamin 'A' help in vision ?
Answer: 169
Vitamin 'A' combines with a protein called opsin to form rhodospin in the rod cells of the retina of eye . When vitamin A is adequate , the lack of rhdospin makes it difficult to see in dim light .
Question: 170
What is chemical composition of cell membrane?
Answer: 170
Chemically, cell membrane is normally composed of proteins and lipids with small quantities of carbohydrates.
Question: 171
What is the significance of coordination ?
Answer: 171
It enables the organisms to respond properly to stimuli . It helps to maintain internal condition which is done by endocrine system
Question: 172
What do you mean by sub cellular or a cellular particles?
Answer: 172
According to first principle of cell theory all organisms are composed of one or more cells , Discovery of virus , prions ,and viroids claim that they are not composed of cells rather they are sub-cellular which do not run any metabolism . They show some characteristics of living organisms i-e they can increase in number and can transmit their characters to next generation . A cellular particles are not classified in any of the five kingdoms of organisms
Question: 173
What is Peritoneum?
Answer: 173
It is the membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity and contains blood vessels.
Question: 174
What are the symptoms of kidney failure?
Answer: 174
Symptoms of kidney failure
(i) High level of urea
(ii) Vomiting
(iii) Nausea
(iv) Weight loss
(v) Frequent urination
(vi) Blood in urine
(vii) Swelling of legs, feet and face
(viii) Shortness of breath
Question: 175
Write symptoms of kidney stones.
Answer: 175
(i) Severe pain in kidney
(ii) Vomiting
(iii) Frequent urination
(iv) Foul- smelling urine
(v) Blood and pus in urine

Question: 176
What is biophysics?
Answer: 176
The interdisciplinar science that deals with the study of the principles of physics which are applicable to biological phenomena.
Question: 177
Define saltatory impulse. What its importance?
Answer: 177
In myelinated neurons, impulse jumps over the areas without myelin going from node to node. Such impulse is called saltatory impulses. It increases the speed of nerve impulse.
Question: 178
What is the shape of cathode in Nelson's cell?Why is it perforated?
Answer: 178
Ans: In Nelson's cell cathode is perforated U-Shaped. It is made perforated so that the solution of sodium hydroxide is formed in it can slowly percolate into a catch basin.
Question: 179
Why are strong electrolyte termed as good conductor ?
Answer: 179
Electrolytes are good conductor because it completely ionized into its ions and it readily produced more ions as
NaOH (s)Na+(aq) +OH- (aq)
Question: 180
Which two components of food are not considered as nutrients ?
Answer: 180
Water and dietary fibres are not considered as nutrients , but they do play important role in life
Question: 181
What is nephron ?
Answer: 181
Nephron is the structural and functional unit of kidney
Question: 182
Why is meat not considered a good source of vitamin C
Answer: 182
Minute quantities of vitamin C are present in muscles . Since meat consists of muscles so it is not a good source of vitamin 'C'
Question: 183
Name the methods for the treatment of kidney failure?
Answer: 183
(i) Dialysis (a) Peritoneal dialysis (b) Haemodialysis
(ii) Kidney transplant
Question: 184
What are the functions of vitamin 'A' 'C' and 'D' ?
Answer: 184
Vitamin 'A': It causes cell differentiation helps in growth , immunity , and helps in vision in dim light
Question: 185
What is light microscope?
Answer: 185
The microscope which uses visible light through specimen to produce image
Question: 186
Which diseases are caused by protein energy malnutrition?
Answer: 186
(i) Kwashiorkor: It is due to protein deficiency at the age of about 12 months. When breast-feeding is discontinued. Children may grow to normal height but are abnormally thin.
(ii) Marasmus: In it patients lose all their body fat and muscle strength and acquire a skeletal appearance. Children show poor growth. It develops between the ages of a 6 months and one year in children.
Question: 187
What is the pH of blood?
Answer: 187
pH of blood is 7.35 to 7.45
Question: 188
From which foods do we get vitamin 'A'?
Answer: 188
We get vitamin 'A' from leafy vegetables (spinach , carrots) yellow/ orange fruits ,liver, eggs, milk , butter
Question: 189
What is community?Give example.
Answer: 189
A community is an assembled of different population interacting which one another with in the same environment communities are collection of organisms in which one population may increase and other may decrease.
Question: 190
How the half-cells of a galvanic-cell are connected ? What is the function of salt-bridge ?
Answer: 190
The two half-cell of the galvanic cell are connected by salt bridge , salt bridge is used to maintain the flow of ionic current and the electric neutrality
Question: 191
What are the components of coordinated action?
Answer: 191
1: Stimulus
3: Coordinator
4: Effector
5: Response
Question: 192
What is cell?
Answer: 192
The cell is the basic structural functional and biological unit of all known living organism.A cell is the smallest unit of life.
Question: 193
Define Anotomy?
Answer: 193
The study of the structure of internal argon.
Question: 194
What are deficiency symptoms of vitamin A,C,D ?
Answer: 194
Vitamin 'A' : It's deficiency cause poor growth , night blindness and dry skin
Question: 195
What are the leading causes of kidney failures?
Answer: 195
(i) Diabetes mellitus
(ii) Hypertension
(iii) Interruption in blood supply to kidney
(iv) Over dosage of medicines
Question: 196
What is the name of by-product produced in Downs's cell?
Answer: 196
The name of the by-product produced in Down Cell is Chlorine gas (Cl2).
Question: 197
What is morphology?
Answer: 197
This bramble dead with the study of from and structure of living organism.
Question: 198
How goosebumps formed ?
Answer: 198
Goosebumps are formed by the contraction of small muscles attached at the base of hairs . It helps in thermoregulation by trapping air between hairs
Question: 199
What are characteristics of cell wall?
Answer: 199
(i) Cell wall is non-living structure.
(ii) It is strong component.
iii) located outside plasma membrane.
(iv) - provides shape, strength, support and protection to cell.
Question: 200
What is the shape of cathode in Nelson's cell ? Why is it perforated ?
Answer: 200
In nelson's cell cathode is made of iron and have U-shaped . It is perforated because extra brine or NaOH can be easily separated
Question: 201
Define Anatomy
Answer: 201
The study of internal structures is called anatomy
Question: 202
Define tissue?Give Example.
Answer: 202
In nul Group of cells of the same type doing a particular job the grandular tissues,muscular tissue nervous tissue etc.
Question: 203
What was contribution of Lamark in cell theory ?
Answer: 203
In 1809 , De Lamark proposed that nobody can have life if its parts are not cellular tissues or are not formed by cellular tissues
Question: 204
Define biogeography.
Answer: 204
The study of the occurano and distribution of species in different geographical rigons of the world.
Question: 205
Differentiate between diffusion and facilitated diffusion?
Answer: 205
Diffusion :It is the movement of molecules from a an area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration i.e Alon concentration gradient
Question: 206
In the electrolysis of water , where is the oxygen produced ?
Answer: 206
In the electrolysis of water oxygen produced at anode as
4OH- (aq) 2H2O(l) + O2(g)+4e-
Question: 207
What are parasite?
Answer: 207
An organisms that live on or an another organisms and cause harm to it.
Question: 208
What is composition of cytoplasm ?
Answer: 208
It is a semi viscous and semi transparent substance containing organic molecules (Note. Carbohydrates. lipids) & inorganic salts completely or partially dissolved in it. Its funetio:1/4), act as sue for various reactions.
Question: 209
Which ions are discharged at Cathode in Nelson's cell and what is produced at Cathode?
Answer: 209
H+ ions are discharged at cathode in Nelson's cell and hydrogen gas produced, at cathode
2H+ + 2e- H2
Question: 210
From which food do we et vitamin 'C' ?
Answer: 210
We get vitamin 'C' from citrus fruit , leafy green vegetables beef and liver .
Question: 211
What is cerebral cortex?
Answer: 211
Upper surface of cerebral hemispheres is called cerebral cortex. It consists of grey matter. It has four lobes
i. Frontal lobe
ii. Parietal lobe
iii. Temporal lobe
iv. Occipital lobe
Question: 212
What will happen if an animal is placed hypertonic cell?
Answer: 212
When cell is placed in hypertonic environment , the water from cell moves out due to osmosis and cell shrinks in size
Question: 213
What is pelvis ?
Answer: 213
A funnel shaped cavity in the kidney is called pelvis .
Question: 214
Are anodes of downs cell and Nelson cell made of same element?If yes, what is it name
Answer: 214
Yes anode of downs cell and Nelson cell made of same element. its name is -graphite
Question: 215
What are the types of coordination organisms ?
Answer: 215
Nervous coordination such coordination which is done by nervous system. Chemical coordination such coordination which is done by endocrine system
Question: 216
Why the positively charged electrode is called anode in electrolytic cell ?
Answer: 216
Positively charged electrode is called anode because it connected to the (+) terminal of the battery and all electrons move towards it as
2Cl-Cl(g) + 2e-
Question: 217
Define Magnification and Resolving power?
Answer: 217
Magnification: It is increase in apparent size of an object.
Question: 218
What products are formed after digestion?
Answer: 218
Proteins are digested into amino acids, carbohydrates into glucose, lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. .
Question: 219
Anode of down cell is made of a non-metal , what is its name ? What is the function of this anode ?
Answer: 219
In down cell , there is a large block of graphite , which act as anode . The Cl-1 ions are oxidizes there produced Cl2 gas at anode
Question: 220
Differentiate between primary growth and secondary growth .
Answer: 220
Primary growth :
1: The total increase in length of plant is called primary growth
2: It is occurred by Apical meristems
Question: 221
Define population?Give example.
Answer: 221
A population is defines as a group of organisms of the same species located at same place,in the same time.
Question: 222
What is meant by malnutrition?
Answer: 222
Problems related to nutrition are grouped as malnutrition. It most often refers to under nutrition resulting from inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Malnutrition also includes over nutrition, resulting from over eating or excessive intake of specific nutrient.
Question: 223
What are the functions of leucoplasts and chromoplasts?
Answer: 223
Leucoplasts :
(i) They contain pigments associated with bright colors and are present in the cells of flow petals and fruits.
(ii) Their function is to give colors to these parts and thus help in pollination and dispersal fruit.
Chromoplasts: Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis in eukaryotes. They contain chlorophyll (the gre, pigment necessary for photosynthesis) and associated pigments. These pigments are present the thylakoids of grana.
Question: 224
What is parasitology?
Answer: 224
This branch deals with the study of parasites.Parasites are the organisms that take food and shelter from living hosts and in return,harm them.
Question: 225
Which force drives the non-spontaneous reaction to take place?
Answer: 225
Non-spontaneous reactions are those which take place in the presence of an external agent. Those external agents arc electrons that cause electricity. So electric energy helps the non-spontaneous reaction to proceed
Question: 226
In the electrolysis of water , towards which terminal H+ions move ?
Answer: 226
In the electrolysis of water (H2O )+or H+ions (hydronium) move towards the cathode
H+ + 1e- (H)
Question: 227
What do you known about volvox?
Answer: 227
volvox is a green alga found in water that showes colonial organization hundreds of volvox cells make a colony.
Question: 228
What are nodes of Ranvier?
Answer: 228
The areas of myelin on a axon, there are non-myelinated points, called the nodes of Ranvier.
Question: 229
Differentiate between Environmental Biology and Cell Biology
Answer: 229
Environmental Biology: The study of interaction of organisms and their environments is called environmental biology
Alternative term for Environmental Biology is Ecology
Question: 230
Towards which electrode of the electrolytic cell moves the cation and what does they do there ?
Answer: 230
Cation carry positive charge they move towards the cathode in an electrolytic cell, they gain electrons at cathode an oxidized
Question: 231
What are the parts of neurons ?
Answer: 231
Neurons consists of two parts cell body and fibers . Cell body consists of nucleus and cytoplasm . Fibers are of two types , dendrites and axons
Question: 232
Differentiate eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell?
Answer: 232
1: The organisms having eukaryotic cell is called as eukaryotes
2: Eukaryotic cells have prominent nucleus
Question: 233
What is kidney failure?
Answer: 233
It is partially or completely failure of kidney to function.
Question: 234
What are bio element?
Answer: 234
Element that make the body of living organisms.
Question: 235
What is lacteal?
Answer: 235
Large vessel of lymphatic system is called lacteal.
Question: 236
Differentiate between diffusion and filtration .
Answer: 236
Diffusion :
1: The movement of molecules from higher concentration to lower concentration across membrane is called diffusion
2: Gas exchange in gills and lungs operates by diffusion
Question: 237
What is protein energy malnutrition?(PEM).
Answer: 237
Protein energy malnutrition means inadequate availablility or absorption of energy and protein in the body. It is the cause of death in children in developing countries.
Question: 238
How much water is present in human body?
Answer: 238
Approximately 60% of the adult human body is composed of water.
Question: 239
Explain working of Na+ .K+ pump.
Answer: 239
In nerve cell membrane , Na+ is maintained at lower concentration inside the cell . So it is actively moved out by using ATP . While K+ are moved inside . So it is an example of active transport
Question: 240
Define Paleontology?
Answer: 240
It is the study of fossils which are the remain of extinct organisms.
Question: 241
What is response ?
Answer: 241
A response is the action performed by effectors in receiving the message from coordination e.g with drawl of hand from hot object
Question: 242
What are prokaryotes and eukaryotes?Give example.
Answer: 242
The organisms in first group are made of cells of prokaryotes while other groups have eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have promin-ent nucleus while prokaryatic cell do not have prominent nucleus.
Question: 243
Ware are receptors ? Give example .
Answer: 243
Cells , tissues or organs of body which detect stimuli are called receptors e.g sound waves are detected by ear , light is detected by eyes, taste is detected by taste buds on tongue
Question: 244
Define pharmacology and immunology
Answer: 244
Pharmacology: Pharmacology deals with the study of medicines and their effects on the body of living organisms
Question: 245
Define organelle and cell level.
Answer: 245
Microscopic structure which does a particular job in a cell,
Cell level:Cell are formed each type of organelle is specialized to perform a specific function.
Question: 246
What are the major components of nervous system ?
Answer: 246
1: Central nervous system ( Brain and spinal cord )
2: Peripheral nervous system (nerves and ganglia )
Question: 247
What is diarrhea and write the symptoms?
Answer: 247
Diarrhea is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements which are accompanied by abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. It occurs when required water is not absorbed in blood from colon.
Question: 248
From which food do we get vitamin 'D'?
Answer: 248
We get vitamin D from fish liver oil ,milk , ghee and butter . It is also synthesized by skin . When ultraviolet (UV) radiations from sun are used to convert a compound into vitamin D
Question: 249
Define nerve impulse ?
Answer: 249
A nerve is waves of electrochemical changes which travels along the length of neurons
Question: 250
Define Entomology
Answer: 250
Entomology is the study of insects like Cockroaches aunts etc
Question: 251
What do you mean by environmental biology?
Answer: 251
It deals with the study of the interactions between the organisms and their environment.
Question: 252
What type of reaction takes place at anode in electrolytic cell?
Answer: 252
Oxidation reaction takes place at anode .Anode is a positive charge electrode the atom on this electrode release electron as

2Cl- (l) Cl2(g) + 2e-
Question: 253
What is the balanced diet?
Answer: 253
A balanced diet may be defined as the food, which contains all the essential nutrients in correct proportions for the normal growth and development of the body
Question: 254
What is dietary fibres?
Answer: 254
Dietary fibres (also known as roughage) is the part of human food that is indigestible. It is found only in plant food and it moves undigested through, stomach and small intestine and into colon.
Question: 255
Name the parts of forebrain
Answer: 255
i. Thalamus
ii. Hypothalamus
Question: 256
Give mechanism of endocytosis .
Answer: 256
It is movement of bulky material inside the cell

1: A portion of cell membrane invaginates
2: The material from outside is taken inside the invagination
3: The open ends of invagination seal forms small vesicle
Question: 257
Define turgor pressure and turgor .
Answer: 257
In hypothesis solution the outward pressure on cell wall exerted by internal water is known as turgor pressure and the phenomenon is turgor
Question: 258
What happens in malnutrition?
Answer: 258
Problems related to nutrition are grouped as malnutrition. It most often refers to under nutrition resulting from inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Malnutrition also includes over nutrition, resulting front over eating or excessive intake of specific nutrient.
Question: 259
What is cerebrum?What is its function?
Answer: 259
It is the largest part of brain.
Functions :
It control skeletal muscles, thinking, intelligence and emotions.
Question: 260
What is the importance of diffusion ?
Answer: 260
It is one principle method of movement of molecules across cell membrane
1: CO2 and O2 molecule can cross cell membrane by diffusion
2: Gas exchange in gills and lungs operate by this process
Question: 261
How can balanced diet be related to gender?
Answer: 261
Gender has an impact on the requirements of a balanced diet. Women have comparatively less metabolic rate than the men of same age and weight. So men need a balanced diet that pros ides comparatively more energy than the women require.
Question: 262
State cell theory?
Answer: 262
Cell theory in its modern form , includes the following principles
1: All organisms are composed of one or more cells

Question: 263
Differentiate between Morphology and physiology
Answer: 263
Morphology: This branch deals with the study of form and structures of living organisms
Question: 264
What are the major causes of famine?
Answer: 264
Famine may be due to:
(i) Unequal distribution of food
(ii) Drought
(iii) Flooding
(iv) Increasing population
Question: 265
What are functions of centriole?
Answer: 265
They help in formation of spindle fibers during cell division.
(ii) They also form cilia (in paramecium). and flagella.

Question: 266
Write names of three main division of bioology
Answer: 266
Three main divisions of biology are given below

Question: 267
What is Farming
Answer: 267
It deals with the development and maintenance of different type of farm For example in some farms animal breeding technologies are used for the production of animals which are better protein and milk source In poultry farms chicken and effs are produced Similarly in fruit farms different fruit yielding plants are grown A studding who has gone through the professional course of agriculture animal husbandry or fisheries can adopt this profession.
Question: 268
Define nerve. What are its types?
Answer: 268
A nerve is formed by union' of several axons that are enveloped by lipid layer. Types: nerves i. Sensoryrves Motor nerves iii. Mixed nerves
Question: 269
What is the function of neuron ?
Answer: 269
Neuron conduct impulses from receptors to coordinators and from coordinators to-effectors
Question: 270
What is chemical composition of cell wall?
Answer: 270
Outer layer of cell wall is called primary wall consists of cellulose . Inner layer of wall consists of lignin and called is secondary cell wall
Question: 271
Define Genetics
Answer: 271
The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other
Question: 272
Define Biochemistry and Morphology
Answer: 272
Biochemistry Biochemistry deals with the study of the chemistry of different compounds and chemical reactions occurring in living organisms
Question: 273
What are sensory neurons?
Answer: 273
SN(s) conduct sensory information from receptors to CNS, SN(s) have one dendrite and one axon.
Question: 274
How does mutton provide us proteins?
Answer: 274
When we eat mutton and digest its proteins into amino acids. These amino acids are used to synthesize our proteins.
Question: 275
Define Orgam?Give Example.
Answer: 275
Group of tissues doing a particular job e.g.The heart
Question: 276
What is the function of parasympathetic system?
Answer: 276
i. It slows down the overall activity of body.
ii. It causes pupils to contract.
iii. It promotes digestion.
iv. It slows the rate of heartbeat.
Question: 277
What is over intake of nutrients?
Answer: 277
Over intake of nutrients causes a number of health problems. For example high intake of carbohydrates and fats leads to obesity, diabetes, and cardio vascular problems. Similarly high doze of vitamin A causes loss of appetite and deposition of calcium in various tissues
Question: 278
Differentiate between Microbiology and Morphology
Answer: 278
Microbiology; Microbiology is a major division of biology which deals with the study of micro organisms such as bacteria's viruses, protozoa etc
Question: 279
What are effectors ? Give example .
Answer: 279
These are the parts of body which receive messages from coordination and produce particular response , e.g muscles and glands
Question: 280
What is neuron or nerve cell , name its types nervous system ?
Answer: 280
Neuron is the structural and functional unit of nervous system Types 1: Sensory neuron 2: Motor neuron 3: Inter neuron
Question: 281
What is meant by churning?
Answer: 281
The process, in which the walls of the stomach contract and relax and mix food and gastric juice. is called churning. During this process heat is produced which help to melt the lipids of food.
Question: 282
What is meant by molecular biology
Answer: 282
The study of molecules of life is called molecujlar biology like Protein carbohydrates
Question: 283
What is Community Level
Answer: 283
Community Level: A community is an assemble of different population interacting with one another within the same environment
Question: 284
How can balanced diet be related to activity of human?
Answer: 284
Different people have different life styles and varied nature of work. A man with sedentary habits does not require as much energy as the man who is on his feet for most of the day.
Question: 285
What is the role of thalamus?
Answer: 285
Relay centre between parts of brain & spinal cord receives and modifies sensory impulses before they travel to cerebrum. Pain perception and consciousness.
Question: 286
What are parasites
Answer: 286
Parasites are the organisms that take food and shelter from living hosts and in return harm their hosts lives
Question: 287
Which diseases are caused by mineral deficiency?
Answer: 287
(i) Goiter
(ii) Anemia.
Question: 288
What are villi?
Answer: 288
There are circular folds in the inner wall of ilium. These folds have numerous finger like projections called Villi. Villi increase the surface area of the inner walls and it helps a lot in the absorption of digested food.
Question: 289
What type of reaction takes place in electrolytic cell?
Answer: 289
In electrolytic cell non-spontaneous reaction takes place
Question: 290
what is meant by supporting tissues in plants ?
Answer: 290
Supporting tissues provide strength and flexibility to the plant body
Question: 291
How brain is protected?
Answer: 291
Brain is protected by i. Cranium iii. Cerebrospinal fluid
Question: 292
What do you know about liver?
Answer: 292
Ans: Liver is the largest gland of body. It is multi-lobed and dark reddish in appearance. It %%eight 1.5 kg and is the size of a football. It lies beneath the diaphragm on the right side of abdomen. Its right lobe is larger than left lobe. A pear shaped greenish yellow sac i.e. gall bladder lies along the right lobe of liver on ventral side.
Question: 293
What is meant by fossiles
Answer: 293
Fossils are dead remains of extinct organisms and the study of fossils is called paleontology
Question: 294
Do non-electrolytes do not form ions in solution ?
Answer: 294
No non-electrolytes do not form ions in solution
Question: 295
If due to any reason, the direction of peristalsis reverses, what would be the result?
Answer: 295
Question: 296
Differentiate between Cell Biology and Histology
Answer: 296
Call Biology: The study of the structures and functions of cells and cell organelles is called cell biology This branch also deals with the study of cell division
Question: 297
How can balance diet be related to age?
Answer: 297
During growth period of the body there is higher metabolic rates in body cells and so the body needs a balanced diet that contains more energy. Adults need less proteins per kg body weight but growing boy or girl needs more protein/kg body weight- similarly children need more calcium and iron for their growing bones and red blood cells respectively.
Question: 298
Write down the names of two types of simple tissues .
Answer: 298
There are two types of simple tissues
1: Meristematic tissues 2: Permanent tissues
Question: 299
How are fibres important for humans?
Answer: 299
(i) Fibres prevents and relieves constipation by stimulating the contraction of intestinal muscles.
(ii) Soluble fibres help in lowering blood cholesterol and sugar levels.
(iii) Insoluble fibres speeds up the movements of carcinogens from intestine.
Question: 300
1: Name the lobes of cerebrum (cerebral cortex)
Answer: 300
: i. Frontal
ii. Occipital
iii. Parietal
iv. Temporal.
Question: 301
Write any three, functions of liver.
Answer: 301
(i) Destroys old red blood cells.
(ii) Converts ammonia to less toxic form i.e. urea.
(iii) t ore blood clotting proteins called fibrinogen.
Question: 302
Explain function of lysosome.
Answer: 302
A lysosome fuse with vacuole that contain targeted materials and its enzymes break down the material.
Question: 303
List the most terrible famines of twentieth century.
Answer: 303
The most terrible famines of the twentieth century are; The Ethiopian famine 1983-85 The North Korean famine 1990
Question: 304
Explain Medicine and Surgery Career in Biology
Answer: 304
Medicine The profession of medicine deal with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in human
Question: 305
Which of the major component of food is needed as the main structural component of the body?
Answer: 305
Protein is needed as main structural component of the body.
Question: 306
What are the major parts of brain?
Answer: 306
i. Forebrain
ii. Midbrain
iii. Hind brain
Question: 307
Define osmosis
Answer: 307
It is the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from solution of lesser solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration filtrations
Question: 308
What is appendix?
Answer: 308
A non-functional finger-like process called appendix arises from the blind end of caecum. Inflammation of appendix due to infection causes severe pain. The infected appendix must be removed surgically otherwise it may burst and inflammation
Question: 309
Where does the sodium metal is collected in Down's cell ?
Answer: 309
Na+ are reduced at cathode and molten Na metal floats on the denser molten salts mixture from where it is collected in aside tube
2Na+ (l) + 2e-2Na (l)
Question: 310
What is human alimentary canal?
Answer: 310
The digestive system of human consists of a long tube that extends from mouth to anus. This tube is called alimentary canal and its main sections are oral cavity. pharynx, oesophagus, stomach small intestine and large intestine. In addition there are many associated gland i.e , salivary glands, liver, pancreas.
Question: 311
What are the functions of sympathetic system?
Answer: 311
It prepares body to deal with emergency situations "fight or flight response". During an emergency situation, this system takes necessary actions. For example it dilates pupils, accelerates heartbeat. increases breathing rate and inhibits digestion.
Question: 312
Differentiate between Morphology and Histology
Answer: 312
Morphology: Morphology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of form and structure of organisms
Question: 313
What is difference between Zoology and Botary
Answer: 313
Zoology: The major division of biology which deals with the study of deals animals is called Zoology
Question: 314
What are effects of malnutrition?
Answer: 314
An extended period of malnutrition:
(i) Starvation
(ii) Heart diseases
(iii) Constipation
(iv) Obesity
Question: 315
Where does cytoplasm lies ? Which organic molecules are in it ?
Answer: 315
Cytoplasm is present between plasma membrane and nuclear membrane or envelope . It contains organic molecules like proteins , carbohydrates and lipids

Question: 316
What do you mean by Horticulture an how it is related to Agriculture
Answer: 316
Horticulture Horticulture profession includes the art of gardening It is related to agriculture because a horticulturist works for the betterment of existing varieties and for the production of new varieties of or amential plants and fruit plants
Question: 317
What is colonial organization?
Answer: 317
Producing organisms which are genetically dentical to one another.
Question: 318
Name the part of Human alimentary canal
Answer: 318
Oral cavity , phyrance , esophague , stomachs , small intestine , large intestine and salivary gland
Question: 319
What are coordination ?
Answer: 319
These are the organs that receive information from receptors and send messages to particular organs for proper action . Brain and spinal cord are coordinators in case of nervous coordination and endocrine , glands are coordinators in chemical coordination
Question: 320
Define Genes
Answer: 320
Genes is unit inheritance It transform genetic informations from one generation to next generation
Question: 321
Define physiology and anatomy
Answer: 321
Physiology: This branch deals with the study of the functions of different parts of living organisms
Question: 322
What are motor neurons?
Answer: 322
MN(s) carry information from interneurons to effectors.
Question: 323
What is famine?
Answer: 323
Famine means the lack of enough food to feed all the people living in an area.
Question: 324
What is somatic nervous system?
Answer: 324
It controls conscious and voluntary actions. It includes all of the motor neurons that conduct impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles.
Question: 325
What is ulcer?
Answer: 325
Ulcer (peptic ulcer) is a sore in the inner wall of gut (in stomach, oesophagus or duodenum). In ulcer, the acidic gastric juice gradually breaks down the tissue of the inner wall.
Question: 326
Name any four careers in Bioogy
Answer: 326
Medicine, Fisheries, Agriculture, Aimal Husbandry
Question: 327
Differentiate between pepsin and pepsinogen .
Answer: 327
Pepsin is an enzyme which digest protein in stomach cavity
Question: 328
Define ganglion
Answer: 328
Cell bodies of many neurons, form a group enveloped by a membrane. Phis is called ganglion.
Question: 329
What is gastrin?
Answer: 329
Some cells of stomach walls release a hormone called gastrin. This hormone enters blood and is distributed to all parts of body. In stomach, it has specific effect and stimulates the gastric glands to secrete more gastric juice.
Question: 330
What is difference between meristematic and permanent tissues ?
Answer: 330
1: Meristematic tissues have cells which have ability to divide
2: It is of two types
. Apical meristems
. Lateral meristems
3: They help in growth
Question: 331
What is the role of fibres supplements in human body?
Answer: 331
Fibres supplements (such as ispaghol husk) when taken properly may help in constipation an in lowering cholesterol level.
Question: 332
Define Habitat
Answer: 332
Habitat means the area of the environment in which organism lives
Question: 333
What is the role of medulla' oblongata?
Answer: 333
i. Controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.
ii. Controls vomiting. coughing sneezing.
Question: 334
Which three secretions are present in small intestine?
Answer: 334
(i) Bile from liver helps in the digestion of lipids. Pancreatic juice from pancreas, which contain trypsin, pancreatic amylase and lipids, which digest protein, carbohydrate and lipids respectively.
(ii) Intestinal juice from intestine walls which contain many enzyme for complete digestion of all kinds of food.
Question: 335
What is meant by Bio-Elements
Answer: 335
Out of the 92 kinds of elements that occur in nature 16 are bioelements These take part in makin the body mass of a living organisms Out of these bioelements Only sex and make of the total mass Other ten One collectively make of the total mass
Question: 336
What is anemia?
Answer: 336
The term anemia literally means "a lack of blood". It is caused when the number of red blood cells is reduced than the normal. If body fails to receive sufficient amount of iron, adequate number of haemoglobin molecules are not formed. In this case, there is not enough functioning of red blood cells. The patient is weak and there is shortage of oxygen. supply to body's cells.
Question: 337
Write the difference between physiology and taxonomy
Answer: 337
The difference between physiology and taxonomy is given below
Question: 338
What is the role of potassium ions in the opening of stomata?
Answer: 338
Recent studies have revealed that light causes the movement of potassium ions from epidermal cells into guard cells. Water follows these ions and enters guard cells. Thus their turgidity increases and stoma opens. As the day progresses, guard cells make glucose i.e. become hypertonic. So water stays in them. At the end of the day, potassium ions flow back from guard cells to epidermal cells and the concentration of glucose also falls. Due to it, water moves to epidermal cells and guard cells loose turgor. It causes the closure of stoma. 3. Define the cohesion-tension theory. Ans: According to this theory, the force which carries water (and dissolved materials) upward through the xylem is transpirational pull. Transpiration creates a pressure difference that pulls water and salts up from roots.
Question: 339
Describe the structure and function of Golgi apparatus and lysosomes .
Answer: 339
Golgi apparatus: An Italian physician Camillo Golgi discovered a set of flattened sacs (cisternae) in cell . In this set , many cisternae are stacked over each other . The complete set of cisternae is called Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex
Question: 340
Define Biotechnology
Answer: 340
Biotechnology deals with the practical application of the living organisms to make substances for the welfare of making i.e the production of insulin from bacteria
Question: 341
Write down the function of xylem and phloem tissues .
Answer: 341
Xylem tissues : Xylem tissues are responsible for the conduction of water from roots to the aerial parts of a plant . It also consists of secondary cell wall which is hard due to the presence of lignin so it is also function to support the plant body
Question: 342
What is centrosomes ?
Answer: 342
In animal cell two centrioles are present to the exterior of nuclear envelope . Two centrioles are collectively called centrosomes . Their function is to help in the formation of spindle fibers during cell division
Question: 343
What are Schwann cells?What is their role?
Answer: 343
These are special neuroglial cell located along axons and secrete myelin sheath. The myelin sheath is an insulator,
Question: 344
What do you mean by Parasitology and biotechnology
Answer: 344
parasitology: Parasitology deals with the study of parasites like study of plasmodium
Question: 345
Which health problems are caused by over intake of nutrients?
Answer: 345
Over intake of nutrients causes obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular problems, high does of vitamin A causes loss of appetite and liver problems, excess use of calcium result deposition of calcium in various tissues.
Question: 346
What is constipation?
Answer: 346
Constipation is a condition where a person experiences hard faeces that are difficult to eliminate.
Question: 347
From which two Greek words the word Biology is made
Answer: 347
The word biology is derived from two Greek words i.e bios meaning life and logos meaning thought or reasoning
Question: 348
What is the role of liver in digestive system?
Answer: 348
Liver secretes bile, which is stored in gall bladder, when gall bladder contracts ,the, bile is released to duodenum through common duct
Question: 349
How does pupil constrict and dilate in bright and dim light.
Answer: 349
i. Pupil constricts in bright light when the circular muscles of iris contract. Pupil dilates in dim light when radial muscles of iris contract.
Question: 350
Which thing causes water to move by osmosis from the xylem?
Answer: 350
Mesophyll cell causes water to move by osmosis from the xylem of leaf.
Question: 351
What are causes of diarrhea?
Answer: 351
The main causes of diarrhea include lack of adequate safe water. Diarrhea is also caused by viral or bacterial infections of large intestine.
Question: 352
Write achievements of Bu Ali Sine in Biology
Answer: 352
He is honored as the founder of medicine and called as Avicenna in the west He was a physician philosopher astronomer and poet One of his books Al Qanoon fil-tib is known as canon of medicine in west
Question: 353
What are preventive measures of Ulcer?
Answer: 353
Spicy. acidic foods and smoking should be avoided as preventive measures.

Question: 354
Why endoplasmic reticulum is called rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum ? Or how RER is differ from SER ?
Answer: 354
RER: Because of its rough appearance due to numerous ribosome that are attached to it ( Endoplasmic reticulum )
SER : Because of its smooth appearance due to absence of ribosome in ER
Question: 355
What is meant by Taxonomy
Answer: 355
Taxonomy It is the study of the naming and classification of organisms into groups and subgroups
Question: 356
What are interneurpns?
Answer: 356
IN(s) from brain and spinal cord. These neurons receive information, interpret, them and stimulate motor neurons.
Question: 357
What is stomach?
Answer: 357
The stomach is a dilated part of the alimentary canal which is j-shaped and located in the left ofabdomen, just beneath diaphragm.
It has two main portions.
(i) The cardiac portion is immediately after oesophagus.
(ii) Pyloric portion is located beneath the cardiac portion.
Question: 358
Define fovea what is its functions?
Answer: 358
It is a dip in retina. directly opposite to lens and is densely packed with cone cells. Function: It is responsible for colour vision in humans and enable high sharpness such as is necessary in reading.
Question: 359
What is G0 phase ?
Answer: 359
In multicellular eukaryotes , cells enter G0 phase from G1 and stop dividing . Some cells permanently in Go and some semi permanently neurons and cells of liver , kidney respectively . Epithelial cells do not enter in Go phase in whole life of organisms
Question: 360
How is food digested in stomach?
Answer: 360
When food enters the stomach, the gastric glands secrete gastric juice, which contains mucous, digestive enzyme and pepsinogen to pepsin ,which digest proteins of food into polypetides and shorter pepide chains HCl also kills micro-organisms.
Question: 361
What are common forms of malnutrition?
Answer: 361
Common forms of malnutrition include
1: CO Protein energy malnutrition include (PEM)
2: Mineral energy malnutrition
3: Over in takes of nutrients (0LN).
Question: 362
What are functions of saliva?
Answer: 362
Saliva performs following functions. -
(i) It adds water and mucous to lubricate the food.
(ii) It contains an enzyme amylase which helps in the semi-digestion of starch
Question: 363
What is Immunology
Answer: 363
Immunology is the branch of biology which deals with the study of the immune system of animals which defends the body against invading microbes
Question: 364
What are plasmodesmata ? Where are these found in cell?
Answer: 364
There are pores in the cell walls of adjacent cells , through which their cytoplasm is connected . These pores are called plasmodesmata
Question: 365
Give the role of bile in indigestion .
Answer: 365
Bile from liver help in digestion of lipids through emulsification by keeping : croplets separate from another
Question: 366
What is meant by passive diffusion ?
Answer: 366
This type of diffusion in which molecules differ from membrane slowly without the expenditure of energy called passive diffusion
Question: 367
How bacteria present in colon are important?
Answer: 367
Bacteria in colon produce vitamin K, which is important in coagulation of blood.
Question: 368
What are sense organs? Give examples.
Answer: 368
Organs which detect stimuli are called senses. e organs, e.g. eyes. ears. nose. etc.

Question: 369
Differentiate mitosis and meiosis .
Answer: 369
1: It takes place in somatic cell
2: It results in two daughter cell
3: No crossing over takes place
4: No. of chromosomes remain same as in parent cell
Question: 370
Define emulsification.
Answer: 370
The breakdown of fat molecules by the bile salt of bile is called emulsification.
Question: 371
Write twoi uses of surgery
Answer: 371
In surgery the parts of the body may be repaired
In surgery the parts of the body may be repaired
In surgery the parts of the body may be removed
Question: 372
What are the functions of hypothalamus?
Answer: 372
i. Links nervous system and exocrine system
ii. Controls pituitary gland
iii. Metabolic processes
iv. Controls feelings, like rage and, pleasure and sorrow
Question: 373
Write the names of two tissues present in stomach
Answer: 373
Epithelial Tissue, Muscular Tissue
Question: 374
What is pharynx?
Answer: 374
A part of alimentary canal through which food in the form of bolus goes and makes special adaptations to prevent the entry of bolus particles in trachea. No digestion takes place in pharynx.
Question: 375
What is centromere ? The point at which two sister chromotids are attached is called
Answer: 375
The point at which two sister chromatids are attached is called centromere
Question: 376
What are the functions of spinal cord?
Answer: 376
i. It serves as a link between body parts and brain. ii. It acts as a coordinating centre, responsible for simple reflexes
Question: 377
What are major biological issues noweadays
Answer: 377
Human population growth infectious diseases addictive drug and pollutions are the major biological issues nowadays
Question: 378
What is plasmolysis ?
Answer: 378
In a hypertonic environment of plant cell loses water and cytoplasm shrinks . The shrinking of cytoplasm is called plasmolysis
Question: 379
What is goiter?
Answer: 379
Goiter is a condition caused by an insufficient amount of iodine in diet. Iodine is used by thyroid gland to produce hormones that control the body's normal functioning and growth. If sufficient iodine is not available in a person's diet, thyroid gland becomes enlarged and it results in swelling in neck. This condition is goiter.
Question: 380
The orgn system level of animals is more complex than plants
Answer: 380
Organs performing similar functions in multicellular organism organize together to form organ system level The organ system level of animals is more complex than plants because animals have to perform greater functions and activities than plants
Question: 381
What are faeces?

Answer: 381
The solid remains of food which contain undigested material are called faeces. Faeces also contain bacteria, sloughed off cells of alimentary canal, bile pigment and water.
Question: 382
What is species
Answer: 382
Species: A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed freely among them and can reproduce fertile offering but are reproductively isolated from all other such groups in nature Basic unit or category of classification is species
Question: 383
Differentiate between diffusion and osmosis .
Answer: 383
Diffusion : It is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration e.g along concentration gradient
Question: 384
Define reflex action.
Answer: 384
The fast involuntary action in which spinal cord act as a coordinator
Question: 385
What is over intake of nutrients
Answer: 385
(OIN) is a form of malnutrition in which more nutrients are taken than the amounts required for normal growth , development and metabolism
Question: 386
Define Socio-biology
Answer: 386
Socio biology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of social behavior of animals that make societies
Question: 387
Define opthalmology .
Answer: 387
It is the branch of science which deals with the study of disease and surgery of eyes
Question: 388
Name different phases of nutrition in helium
Answer: 388
The nutrition in humans comprises of following phases
1: Ingestion
2: Absorption
3: Digestion
4: Assimilation
5 Ingestion
6: Defecation

Question: 389
What are parasities
Answer: 389
Parasites: parasites are the organism that take food and shelter from living hosts and in return harm them
Question: 390
What are plastids ? Name their kind .
Answer: 390
Plastids are also membrane bounded organelle present in plants and photosynthesis protists
Question: 391
What is autonomic system?
Answer: 391
It is responsible for the activities, which are not under conscious control. It consist, of motor neurons that send signals to cardiac muscles. smooth muscles and glands. It consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic system.
Question: 392
Write examples of complex communities
Answer: 392
grater number and size of populations
Question: 393
Write role of calcium and fluoride in human body ?
Answer: 393
Calcium activates enzymes and it is also needed for maintaining cell membranes and connective tissues and for activation of several enzymes . Fluoride stabilizes bone mineral and hardens the tooth enamel
Question: 394
What is Difference between disjunction and non-disjunction?
Answer: 394
Disjunction:The normal separation of chromosomes or sister chromatin in meiosis is known as disjunction For example : In normal separation 56 chromosomes are present
Question: 395
What are symptoms of Ulcer?
Answer: 395
The symptoms of ulcer include abdominal burning after meals or at midnight. Severe ulcers may cause abdominal pain, rush of saliva after an episode of regurgitation, nausea, loss of appetite and weight loss.
Question: 396
What is meant by pharmacology
Answer: 396
Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their effects on the system of the human body
Question: 397
How does mitosis significant?
Answer: 397
Importance of mitosis is the maintenance of chromosomal set i-e each daughter cell receives chromosomes that are alike in composition and equal in number to the chromosomes of parent cell . During the occasions of development and growth , cell replacement , regeneration and asexual reproduction , mitosis happens
Question: 398
Where are faeces stored?
Answer: 398
Faeces are temporarily stored in the rectum which opens out through anus-under normal condition, when rectum is filled up with faeces, it gives rise to a reflex and anus is opened for defectation.
Question: 399
Define Biometery
Answer: 399
Biometry: It deals with the study of biological processes using mathematical techniques and tools
Question: 400
Differentiate between phagocytosis and pinocytosis
Answer: 400
Phagocytosis : The process by which a cell , such as a white blood cell , ingests microorganisms , other cells ,and foreign particles
Question: 401
What is the function of vitamin C in the body ?
Answer: 401
Vitamin C in white blood cells enables the immune system of function properly . It is needed to form the collagen a fibrous protein )that gives strenght to connective tissues
Question: 402
What do you know about the profession Agriculture
Answer: 402
Agriculture profession deals with the food crops and the animals which are the source of food An agriculturist works for the battement of Crops like wheat nce corn etc and animals like buffalo cow etc from which we get food in Pakistan there are many universities which offer professional courses on agriculture
Question: 403
What are lenticels and where are they found in plant body?
Answer: 403
The lenticel is the small pores which are present the bark of the stem.
Question: 404
Write down the namesof groups of biomolecules and give example
Answer: 404
Biomolecules Bioelements in living organisms combine through ionic and covalent bond formation to form stable particles know as biomolecules
Question: 405
Differentiate between spinal and cranial nerves.
Answer: 405
Cranial Nerves
1. Those nerves which arise from Brain are called as cranial nerves.
2. There are twelve pairs of cranial Nerves which are some sensory Some motor and some mix.
Question: 406
How can constipation be prevented
Answer: 406
One should take the required quantities of water and dietary fibres
Question: 407
What is brain stem?
Answer: 407
The medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain connect the rest of brain to spinal cord collectively called brain stem
Question: 408
Differentiate between Endocytosis and Exocytosis .
Answer: 408
Endocytosis: It is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky materials by the in folding of the cell membrane
This process lost the part of cell membrane
There are two types of endocytosis
1: phagocytosis 2: pinocytosis
Question: 409
Define hormone
Answer: 409
It is a specific messenger molecule synthesized and secreted by an endocrine gland
Question: 410
Differentiate between major minerals and trace minerals .
Answer: 410
Major minerals : Major minerals are required in the amounts of 100mg (milligrams) or more per day
Question: 411
Write down the levels of organization is sequence
Answer: 411
Sub atomic and Atomic level, Molecular level, Organelle and cell level, Tissue level, Organ and Organ system level. Organism level, Population level, Community level, Biosphere level
Question: 412
What is meant by Bioeconomics
Answer: 412
Bioecomics deals with the study of organisms from economical point of view For example the cost value and economical point of view For example the cost value and profit value of the yield of wheat can be calculated through bioeconomic
Question: 413
What is microscopy ? And who discovered the first microscope ?
Answer: 413
The use of microscope is known as microscopy . The first compound microscope was developed by Zacharias Janssen , in Holland in 1595 . It was simply a tube with lenses at each end and its magnification ranged from 3X to 9X
Question: 414
What functions performed by oral cavity?Oral cavity is the space behind mouth and it performs following functions:
Answer: 414
(i) Selection of food
(ii) Grinding of food
(iii) Lubrication
(iv) Digestion
Question: 415
Differentiate between organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Answer: 415
Organic fertilizerOrganic fertilizers are derived from plants and animals. They are more complex and take time to be broken down into forms usable by Plants. Mature and compast are used as organic fertilizers They can increase soil drainage aeration and soi ability to hold-nutrient
Question: 416
What is spinal cord?
Answer: 416
It is the continuation of medulla oblongata. It is a tubular bundle of nerves. It consists white matter and central grey matter.
Question: 417
Name three differenced parts of small intestine?
Answer: 417
i) First part is duodenum, which is 25cm long and here most of the digestive process occurs.
(ii) Second is jejunum, which is 2.4m long which is concerned with the rest of the digestion of the proteins, starch and lipids.
(iii) Last is ileum, which is 3.5m long it is concerned with the absorption of digested food.
Question: 418
Who gave the concept of metabolism first of all?
Answer: 418
The concept of metabolism was first of all given by Ibn-e-Nafees who stated that the body and its parts are always undergoing change.
Question: 419
What is the function of lens of eye?
Answer: 419
It focuses light on retina and produce image an it.
Question: 420
Write the names of two juices secreted in small intestine of man
Answer: 420
Pancreatic juice , intestinal juice
Question: 421
Differentiate between primary and secondary cell walls .
Answer: 421
Primary cell : The outer layer of plant cell wall is called primary cell wall and cellulose is major component it
Question: 422
How can constipation be treated?
Answer: 422
Treatment of constipation is with a change in dietary and exercise habits. The medicines called laxatives (e.g. paraffin) are used for treatment.
Question: 423
What is the function of Oxytocin?
Answer: 423
i. It stimulates the contraction of uterus walls in females for child birth.
ii. It causes ejection of milk from breasts.
Question: 424
What is stomatal transpiration?
Answer: 424
The transpiration occurs through stomata and is called stomata] transpiration.
Question: 425
What is S-phase ?
Answer: 425
In this phase , cell duplicates its chromosomes . As a result each chromosomes consists of two sister chromatids
Question: 426
Why is Jabir Bin Hayan famous
Answer: 426
Jabir Bin Hayman: Jabir Bin Hayman was born in Iran He introduced experimental investigation in chemistry and also wrote a number of book on plants and animals His famous books are Al Napata and Al Hayman
Question: 427
What are preventions of diarrhea?
Answer: 427
Preventions of diarrhea include taking proper water and essential salts, eating regularly and taking hygienic measures.
Question: 428
What are Iris and Pupil?
Answer: 428
Behind cornea. choroid bends to form a muscular ring called Iris. The centre of this iris is called pupil. Light first pass through pupil.
Question: 429
Define Biophysics
Answer: 429
Biophysics: It deals with the study of principles of physics which are applicable to biological phenomena
Question: 430
What is the largest gland of human body and where it is located ?
Answer: 430
Liver is the largest gland of human body . It lies beneath the diaphragm on the right hand side of abdomen
Question: 431
What are rods and cones?
Answer: 431
These are photosensitive cells. Rods are sensitive to dim light while cones are sensitive to bright light and so distinguish different colours.
Question: 432
What is reverse osmosis ?
Answer: 432
In advanced water-treatment technologies , membrane -based filtration systems are used . In this process , semi-permeable membranes separate salts from water (reverse osmosis )
Question: 433
Write down two names of each plant and animal tissues
Answer: 433
Ground and vascular tissues are the plant tissues Nervous and Muscular tissues are the animal tissues
Question: 434
Name three parts of large intestine.
Answer: 434
Large Intestine has Three Parts:
(i) Caecum
(ii) Colon
(iii) Rectum
Question: 435
What is difference between Karyokinesis and cytokinesis
Answer: 435
Karyokinesis : The division of nucleus is called Karyokinesis. It is the phase of mitotic phase .
Question: 436
In which part of the alimentary canal the maximum absorption of nutrients occurs?
Answer: 436
Small intestine
Question: 437
What is choroid?
Answer: 437
It is middle layer of eye ball. It contains blood vessels and gives a dark colour. It bends behind cornea to form iris
Question: 438
Write the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Answer: 438
It is involved in a lipid metabolism . It is involved in transport of materials from one part of cell to other
Question: 439
Define ribosome , write their function and structure .
Answer: 439
These are tiny granular structures that are either floating freely in cytoplasm or are bound to endoplasmic reticulum . These are the sites for protein synthesis . These are made of almost equal amount of proteins and ribosomal RNA
Question: 440
Write the symptoms of goiter and Anaemia ?
Answer: 440
If sufficient iodine is not available a person diet thyroid gland became enlarge and cause in swallowing of Neck . If body fails to receive amount of iron adequate no of hemoglobin molecular are nor formed . Then the patient is weak and there is a shortage oxygen supply
Question: 441
Define Tissue and organ also give example
Answer: 441
Tissues In multicellular organisms tissues can be defined as a group of similar cells specialized for the performance of a common function
Question: 442
What is the role of eyelids and eyelashes?
Answer: 442
i. Eye lids wipe eyes and prevent dehydration.
ii. Eyelash prevents fine particles from entering the eye.
Question: 443
Define necrosis
Answer: 443
Necrosis is accompanied by release of special enzymes from lysosomes the lysosomes enzymes break cellular components and may also be released outside the cells . The cells dead by necrosis and can produce harmful chemicals that damage the other cells
Question: 444
What are causes of constipation?
Answer: 444
The main causes of constipation include excessive absorption of water through colon. insufficient intake of dietary fibre, dehydration, use of medicines (e.g. those containing iron. calcium and almunium)and tumours in rectum or anus
Question: 445
Describe any two functions of liver besides digestion .
Answer: 445
It destroys the old red blood cells . It converts ammonia to less toxic from urea
Question: 446
What is Organ System
Answer: 446
Organ System Different organs performing related functions are organized together in the form of an organ system In an organ system each organ carries out its specific function and the functions of all organs appear as the function of the organ system
Question: 447
Differentiate between skeletal muscles and smooth muscles .
Answer: 447
Skeletal muscles : These are striated muscles attached to the bones and contain many nuclei . They are responsible for the movement . They are voluntary means their movement is under our will
Question: 448
Describe Animal Husbandry as career in biology
Answer: 448
Animal Husbandry: It is the branch of agriculture concerned with the care and breeding of domestic animals
Question: 449
What is metastasis ? Write role in cancer
Answer: 449
The process in which maligant cells (tumors) send the cancer to the parts of body (spreading of disease )
Question: 450
Which things are included in Blood cells and cell-like bodies?
Answer: 450
These include red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes)
Question: 451
What is the contribution of Ali-Ibn Isa ?
Answer: 451
He wrote three books ophthalmology 130 eye disease and perscribed 143 drugs to treat these diseases
Question: 452
What is the composition of PNS?
Answer: 452
It is composed of nerves and ganglia. Nerves are of mo tspes, spinal and cranial nerves.
Question: 453
What is Biosphere level
Answer: 453
The part of Earth inhabited by organisms communities is known as biosphere It constitutes all ecosystems and is called the zone of life on Earth or biosphere
Question: 454
Name famous books of jabar Bin Hayan and Abdul Malik Asmal
Answer: 454
Al-Nabatat and Al-Hayman are written by jabir Bin-Hayan Famous books written by Abdul Malik Asma were Al-abil Camel Al khail Horses Al Whoosh animal
Question: 455
For what purpose phloem tissue is responsible?
Answer: 455
Phloem tissue is responsible for the conduction of dissolved organic matter between different parts of plant body from source to sink.
Question: 456
A nerve cell after its formation remain in which phase of cell cycle ?
Answer: 456
In multicellular eukaryotes , cells enter G0 phase from G1 and stop dividing . Some cells remain in G0 for indefinite period e.g the nerve cell is enter in G0 phase of cell cycle
Question: 457
Define genetics and embryology
Answer: 457
Genetics: The study of genes and their roles in inheritance is called genetics inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other
Question: 458
Write sources and deficiency symptoms of Vitamin D ?
Answer: 458
Fish liver oil , Milk , ghee and butter synthesized by skin .
Deficiency symptoms of vitamin D
Rickets in children ,osteomalacia in adults .
Question: 459
Differentiate between Macromolecules and Macromolecules with example
Answer: 459
Macromolecules: Molecules with low molecular weight are called macromolecules
Question: 460
Differentiate between diploid and haploid cells.
Answer: 460
It means the cells in which chromosomes are in pairs
Example: in somatic cells.
Question: 461
Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated spoil fatty acid, give one example .
Answer: 461
Saturated fatty acid : Theses have all their C-atoms bonded to Haltom's
These solid at room temperature e.g Butter contains 70% saturated fatty acid
Question: 462
What is the difference between cell membrane and plasma membrane ?
Answer: 462
Cell membrane : When we talk about all the membranes of a cell , we say them as cell membrane
Question: 463
What is colorblindness?
Answer: 463
Cones recognize the primary colours are blue green and red. Damages to these pigments result in colour blindness. I his is genetic problem in which person is unable to distinguish between different colour.
Question: 464
Write two adverse effect carbonated soft drink
Answer: 464
There is a growing concern about the harmful effects of carbonated soft drinks . They are very acidic and make our bodies poor in oxygen . They contain phosphoric acid which dissolves calcium out of the bones . This results in bones weakening . The caffeine present in colas increase the heart rate and raises blood pressure
Question: 465
Differentiate between population and community
Answer: 465
Population: A population is defined as a group of organisms of the same species located at the same place
Question: 466
Why cell membrane is called semi permeable membrane ?
Answer: 466
Cell membrane functions as a semi-permeable barrier , allowing a very few molecules across it while fencing the majority of chemicals inside cell . In this way , cell membrane maintains the internal composition of cells
Question: 467
Name the parts of hind brain.
Answer: 467
Medulla oblongata
ii. Cerebellum
iii. Pons
Question: 468
What role does the pericardia Fluid
Answer: 468
Heart is enclosed in a sac known as pericardium. There is a fluid, known as pericardial fluid, between pericardium and heart walls. It reduces friction between pericardium and heart, during heart contractions.
Question: 469
What do you know about outer layer of eye ball?
Answer: 469
i. It consists of sclera and cornea.
ii. Sclera gives eye most of its white colour. In front, it forms a transparent cornea.
iii. Cornea admits light to interior of .eye and bends light rays so that they can be brow to a focus.
Question: 470
Define apoptosis .
Answer: 470
Apoptosis is one of the main types of programmed cells death , during apoptosis , cells shrinks and becomes rounded due to the breakdown of cytoskeleton by enzymes . It chromatin undergoes condensation and nuclear envelope breaks
Question: 471
What is rhodopsin?
Answer: 471
Rod contain a pigment called rhodopsin. When light falls on rhodopsin. it break and generates a nerve impulse
Question: 472
What is tricuspid valve?
Answer: 472
The opening between right atrium and right ventricle is guarded by a salve called tricuspid salve (which is guarded by 3 flaps). It allows the blood to move front right atrium to right ventricle and prevent back flow,
Question: 473
Plants do not make their gametes by meiosis. How is that?
Answer: 473
Plants' life cycle shows alternation of generations. The cells of diploid sporophyte undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores. which grow into haploid gametophyte generations Gametophyte generation produces haploid gametes through mitosis. The gametes combine to produce diploid zygote. Zygote undergoes repeated mitosis to become diploid sporophyte
Question: 474
Define endocrine system .
Answer: 474
This system consists of endocrine glands and hormones . Through hormones , this system communicates
Question: 475
Write the role of calcium and potassium in plants life ?
Answer: 475
Regulates the opening and closing of the stomata , reduces water loss from the leaves
Activates enzymes , is a structural component of cell wall , influences water movement in cells .
Question: 476
What are prosthetic groups?
Answer: 476
The organic cofactors, which are tightly bound to enzymes are called prosthetic groups.
Question: 477
Differentiate between autotrophic organisms and heterotrophic ?
Answer: 477
Autotrophic organisms : Autotrophs are plants and organisms prepare their own food . Examples plants
Question: 478
What is the role of Eustachian tube ?
Answer: 478
It regulates the air pressure on both sides of ear drum
Question: 479
Why carbohydrates are important for man ?
Answer: 479
Carbohydrates are important for human because it is most common source of energy
Question: 480
What is metaphase plate ?
Answer: 480
The chromosomes arrange in cell equator and form a plate called a metaphase plate .
Question: 481
What is the-treatment for diarrhea?
Answer: 481
The treatment for diarrhea involves consuming adequate amounts of water to replace the loss. preferably mixed with essential salts and some amount of nutrients. Antibiotics may be required if diarrhea is due to bacterial infection.
Question: 482
What is difference between interface and inter phase 2 ?
Answer: 482
inter phase : Inter phase has S phase to duplicate chromosomes
Question: 483
What do you mean by sources and sinks according to the pressure flow mechanism?
Answer: 483
Sources: Sources include the exporting organs, typically a mature leaf or storage organ. Sinks: Sinks are the areas of active metabolism or storage e.g. roots, tubers, developing fruits and leaves, and growing regions.
Question: 484
How does change in pH affect activity of enzymes?
Answer: 484
Enzymes are mostly proteins; change in pH can affect the ionization of the amino acids at the active site. A slight change in pH causes retardation in enzyme activity or blocks it completely.
Question: 485
What is Biogeography
Answer: 485
Biogeography is the study of occurrence and distribution of different species of living organisms in different geographical regions of the world It applies the knowledge of the characteristics of particular geographical regions to determine the characteristics of living organisms found there
Question: 486
Why the division in prokaryotes is not called mitosis ?
Answer: 486
Prokaryotes do not have proper nucleus and do not form spindles during divisions . That is why there divisions is not called mitosis
Question: 487
is protein formed and what is its function in the body ?
Answer: 487
1: Proteins are composed of amino acids
2: They play a role as enzymes
3: They can be used for gaining energy
4: We use protein for growth
Question: 488
What are the main parts of ear ?
Answer: 488
1: Pinna
2: Auditory canal
3: Ear drum
Question: 489
Define Metabolism.
Answer: 489
The set of biochemical reactions that occur in living organism in order to maintain life is called metabolism.
Types: They are two types of metabolism
(i) Anabolism (ii) Catabolism I.
Question: 490
How is ulcer treated?
Answer: 490
Ulcer is treated with medicines which neutralize the acidic affects of gastric juice.
Question: 491
Write two industrial uses of enzyme.
Answer: 491
Food Industry: Enzymes that break starch into simple sugars are used in the production of white bread. buns etc. (Amylase).
Question: 492
What is the cause of diabetes Insipidus?
Answer: 492
It is due to deficiency of antidiuretic hormone.
Question: 493
Differentiate between Species and Habitat
Answer: 493
Species: Species is a group of organisms which can interbreed among themselves to produce fertile offspring
Question: 494
Write the function of guard cell?
Answer: 494
Stomata in leaf epidermis are surrounded by guard cells . During daytime guards cells are making glucose and so are hypertonic (have higher concentration of glucose ) than their nearby epidermis cells . Water enters them from other cells and they swell . In this form they assume a rigid bowed shape and a pore is created between them . At night when there is low solute concentration in guard cells , water leaves them and they become flaccid . In this form both guard cells rest against one another and the opening is closed
Question: 495
How water is an important for our diet ?
Answer: 495
Water also functions as the environment in which water soluble food stuff is adsorbed in the intestine and the waste products are eliminated in urine
Question: 496
State cytokinesis
Answer: 496
The division of cytoplasm is called cytokinesis
Question: 497
Define Reflex arc.
Answer: 497
It is the nerve pathway over which nerve impulse travels in a reflex action
Question: 498
What are the main causes of constipation ?
Answer: 498
Excessive absorption of water through colon, insufficient intake of dietary ,fibre , dehydration ,use of medicine and tumors in rectum and anus
Question: 499
Differentiate between somatic cells and germ like cells .
Answer: 499
Somatic cells : Somatic cells are those which form the body of organism . Somata cells undergo mitosis
Question: 500
What is sunlight energy? Write its function in plants?
Answer: 500
Sunlight energy is absorbed by chlorophyll . It is then converted into chemical energy which derives the photosynthesis process . The light rays of different wave lengths are not only differently absorbed by photosynthetic pigments but are also differently effective in photosynthesis . The blue and red lights carry out more photosynthesis
Question: 501
What is the scientific name of mustard plant Describe its twoi advantages
Answer: 501
The scientific name of Mustard plant is brassica composters This plant is sown in winter and it produces seeds at the end of winter
Question: 502
Describe any four sources of proteins .
Answer: 502
Meat, eggs , grains , legumes
Question: 503
. What is transpiration pull?
Answer: 503
The pulling force created by the transpiration of water is called transpirational pull. It helps water transport through plant.
Question: 504
two functions perform by cell membrane .
Answer: 504
Cell membrane functions as a semi-permeable barrier , allowing a very few molecules across it while fencing the majority of chemicals inside cell . In this way cell membrane maintains the internal composition of cells
Question: 505
Which respiratory gasses is present in plasma ?
Answer: 505
It contains respiration gases like CO, and 02
Question: 506
What is bengin tumors ?
Answer: 506
bengin tumors as long as these tumors remain in their original location , they are called bengin tumors
Question: 507
Define Population
Answer: 507
Population A population is defined as a group of organisms of the same species located at the same place in the same time.
Question: 508
Write the role of phosphorous and zinc in plant ?
Answer: 508
Phosphorous : Component of ATP nuclei acids and coenzymes , necessary for seed germination , photosynthesis , protein formation etc .
Question: 509
Write four names of unicellular organisams
Answer: 509
Unicellular Organisms consist of only Sigle cell
A single cell perform all functions and activities of an organism
Question: 510
Differentiate between digestion and defecation .
Answer: 510
The process of breaking up complex substances into simple substances is called digestion
Elimination in undigested food from the body called defecation
Question: 511
What is drought ? Write down any of its two demerits
Answer: 511
1: A drought is a period of time when there is not enough water to support agricultural and human needs
Question: 512
What is optic disc or blind spot?
Answer: 512
Optic disc is a point on retina where the optic nerve enters retina. No pin insensitive cells exist at this point, so it is called blind spot.
Question: 513
Differentiate between assimilation an absorption .
Answer: 513
Assimilation : It is the conversion of simple food into complex substances
Question: 514
What is difference lenticel and stomata ?
Answer: 514
Lenticels are present on the bark of some plants .Stomata are present on the epidermis of the leaves
Question: 515
Give two examples of eye disorders
Answer: 515
i. Myopia (short sightedness)
I Hypermetropia (Long sightedness)
Question: 516
For what purpose xylem cells are responsible?.
Answer: 516
Xylem tissue is responsible for the transport of water and dissolved substances from roots to aerial parts.
Question: 517
What is meant by thrombus?
Answer: 517
The blood clots formed by plagues within arteries are called thrombus.
Question: 518
What is difference between bengin and malignant tumor ?
Answer: 518
Bengin tumor :
1: The tumor which is localized is called bengin
2: The cells of cancer do not invade other tissues of body
Question: 519
Which thing can change the pH of the blood?
Answer: 519
change the pH of the blood
Question: 520
What is iodopsin?
Answer: 520
Cones contain a pigment called iodopsin.
Question: 521
What is interphase?
Answer: 521
The time when a cell's metabolic activity is very high is called interphase. It has 3 phase. (i) Gl phase (ii) G2 phase (iii) S-Phase
Question: 522
Which molecule is called energy currency of a cell write name major its major parts.
Answer: 522
ATP is a energy currency of a cell. Each ATP molecule has three subunits: (a) adenine - a double ringed nitrogenous base
(b) a ribose - a five carbon sugar; and
(c) three phosphate groups in a linear chain.
Question: 523
What is thyroid stimulating" hormone (TSH)?
Answer: 523
It is the hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of pituitary gland. It stimulates thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin
Question: 524
What is pericardium?
Answer: 524
Heart is enclosed in a sac known as pericardium. There is a fluid known as pericardial fluid between pericardium and heart walls. It reduces friction between pericardium and heart. during heart contraction.
Question: 525
Name part of ear drum .
Answer: 525
1: Vestibule
2: Semicircular canals
3: Cochlea
Question: 526
What type of cell division occur during wounds healing?
Answer: 526
Mitosis occurs when our wounds are healed.
Question: 527
Write two functions of muscular tissue
Answer: 527
Muscular tissue moves the bones of skeleton
Muscular tissue makes heart beat
Question: 528
Write the characteristics of cardiac muscles .
Answer: 528
The muscles present in heart walls are called cardia muscles Cardiac muscles are involuntary in action are composed of branched striated cells , each with a single nucleus
Question: 529
Define chiasmata?
Answer: 529
During meiosis the two non-sister chromatids of homologuous chromosomes join together certain points along their length . These points of attraction are called chiasmata
Question: 530
Which is the smallest bones of human body ?
Answer: 530
Stapes in the middle ear
Question: 531
Define activators.
Answer: 531
The substance, which increase or speed up the activity of enzymes are called activators.
Question: 532
Write down any two advantages of fibrous food .
Answer: 532
1: It helps in constipation
2: It helps in lowering cholesterol levels
Question: 533
What is optics ? Who is regarded as father of optics ?
Answer: 533
Optics refers to the study of behavior of light . Ibn-Al-Haytham is regarded as father of optics
Question: 534
How different materials transport in human body?
Answer: 534
Like other animals the task of transport of different materials in human body is performed by two systems i.e. blood circulatory system and lymphatic system. system
Question: 535
What is eutrophication ? What is its effect on earth ?
Answer: 535
Eutrophication is defined as increase in chemical nutrient in an ecosystem . The extra amount chemical nutrients may cause of increase of soul activity
Question: 536
What are dark reactions?
Answer: 536
During second phase of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced to make glucose. In his phase, the energy from high energy molecules (ATP and NADPI I) is utilized. Since these reactions do not use light directly, they are known as dark reactions. These reactions take place in the stroma of chloroplasts'
Question: 537
Write the names of disorder of gut .
Answer: 537
1: Diarrohea
2: Constipation
3: Ulcer
Question: 538
Define cofactor and coenzyme
Answer: 538
The non-protein molecules or ions, which are required by enzymes to show full activity, are called cofactors. Cofactors may be inorganic (e.g. metal ions) or organic (e.g. flavin and heme)

Question: 539
Give causes of obesity
Answer: 539
Obesity means becoming over-weight and it may also be due to malnutrition . People who take food that contains energy more than their requirements and do very little physical work can become obese . Obesity is known as the mother-disease and may lead to heart problem hypertensions , diabetes etc
Question: 540
What errors may occur in mitosis ?
Answer: 540
Errors in the control of mitosis may cause cancer . All cells have genes that control the timing and number of mitosis . Sometimes mutation occur in such genes and cells continue to divide . It results in growth of abnormal cells called tumor
Question: 541
Write blood groups of human blood
Answer: 541
There are four different blood groups.
(i) A person antigen A on RBCs has blood group A.
(ii) A person antigen B on RBCs has blood group B.
(iii) A person antigen A,B on RBCs has blood group AB.
(iv) A person non of A,B antigen has blood group 0
Question: 542
At which pH pepsin and trypsin work?
Answer: 542
Pepsin (working in stomach) is active in acidic medium (low pH) and trypsin (working in small intestine) shows its activity in alkaline medium (high pH)
Question: 543
What role does the pericardia Fluid
Answer: 543
Heart is enclosed in a sac known as pericardium. There is a fluid, known as pericardial fluid. between pericardium and heart walls. It reduces friction between pericardium and heart, during heart contractions.
Question: 544
Is it possible to reverse the events of the cell cycle ?
Answer: 544
The events of cell cycle are ordered and directional i-e each event occurs in a sequential fashion and it is impossible to ' reverse' the cycle
Question: 545
What is somatotrophin? What is function?
Answer: 545
It is a hormone produced by anterior lobe of pituitary gland. Function: It promotes the growth of body.
Question: 546
What is testosterone ?
Answer: 546
It is the hormone secreted by testis which controls development of secondary sex characters in male
Question: 547
What is meant by tumors ?
Answer: 547
Sometimes mutation occur in such genes and cell contain to divide it results in growth of abnormal cells called tumors
Question: 548
What is night blindness?
Answer: 548
The deficiency of vitamin A causes night blindness.
Question: 549
Write down the scientific name of Crow and Frog
Answer: 549
Frog Rana tigrine
House Crow: Corus splendens

Question: 550
Write any two characteristics of enzymes?
Answer: 550
Almost all enzymes are proteins i.e. they are made of amino acids. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable uncatalyzed reactions. As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze.
Question: 551
Which person art universal donors and universal recipients?
Answer: 551
O blood group individuals are called universal donors, because they can donate blood to the recipients of every other blood group. AB blood group individuals are called universal recipients because they can receive transfusion from donors of every group.
Question: 552
Define reproduction
Answer: 552
Reproduction is a biological process by which living things produce the individuals of the same species i-e the next generation of species
The most basic characteristics of life is reproduction , reproduction occurs at different levels of organizations . Parts of cell such as chromosomes produce new chromosomes ,cells produce new cells this all involve in reproduction
Question: 553
What are the cause of anemia and goiter disease of man ?
Answer: 553
Deficiency of iron and iodine cause anaemia and goiter diseases of man
Question: 554
Differentiate between vegetative and reproductive organs
Answer: 554
The difference between vegetative and reproductive organs are given below
Question: 555
What are the major cause of ulcer ?
Answer: 555
Long term use of anti-inflammatory medicines ,smoking , drinking coffee ,coals and eating spicy foods
Question: 556
How is cytokinesis different in plant cells as compare the to animal cells?
Answer: 556
Cytokiaesis in plant cells: .
Crokinesis in plant cells occurs differently. Vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus ore a t middle of cell and fuse to form a membrane-bounded disc called cell plate or phragmoplast. The grows outs and and more vesicles fuse with it. Finally, membranes of cell plate fuse wide as membrane and its contents join the parental cell wall. The result is two daughter cells, each bounded its own plasma membrane and cell wall.
Question: 557
You see pus at the site of infection on your skin. How is it formed?
Answer: 557
WBCs die in the process of killing the germs. These dead cells accumulate and make the white substance called pus, seen at infection sites.
Question: 558
What are accessory pigments?
Answer: 558
Photosynthetic pigments are organized in the form of clusters, called photosystems, in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. Chlorophyll-a is the main, photosynthetic pigment. Others are called accessory pigments and include chlorophyll and carotenoids
Question: 559
Deficiency of which vitamin cause Osteomalcia ? Write down one symptom.
Answer: 559
Due to deficiency in vitamin D . It can produce 'soft bones ' and risk fen-fractures in bones
Question: 560
What are endocrine glands ? Give example .
Answer: 560
These are the ductless glands which secrete hormones into blood e.g thyroid ,pituitary , adernal etc
Question: 561
How many cubic millimeters of WBC5 present in blood?
Answer: 561
One cubic millimeter of blood contains 7000 to 8000 WBCs.
Question: 562
Name of the important proteins present in ploasma.
Answer: 562
The important proteins present in p antibodies, fibrinogen, albumin.
Question: 563
What are middle ear ossicles?
Answer: 563
Three bones are present in middle ear are called middle ear ossicles . There are malleus , incus and stapes
Question: 564
What is the function of leukocytes ?
Answer: 564
1: Their function as main agents in the body's defense system
2: They destroy small particles through phagocytosis
3: They break inflammatory substances and kill parasites
4: They prevent blood clotting
Question: 565
What is vitreous humour?
Answer: 565
The posterior chamber of cavity of eye contains a jelly like fluid which is called vitreous humour
Question: 566
Enlist four sources of Vitamin D .
Answer: 566
Fish , liver oil milk , ghee (butter) synthesized by skin
Question: 567
Differentiate between anabolism and catabolism
Answer: 567
includes the biochemical reactions in which larger molecules are reactions in which larger molecules are it synthesized. Energy is utilized in broken down. Usually energy is released in anabolism_ catabolism.
Examaple: Photosynthesis
Question: 568
Define the terms systole and diastole.
Answer: 568
Systole: When both atria contract and pump blood towards ventricles. This period in cardiac cycle is called atrial systole. Atrial systole takes about 0.1 seconds When both ventricles contract and pump blood towards body and lungs. The period of ventricular contraction ins called ventricular systole. Ventricular systole lasts about 0.3 seconds
Question: 569
What is weight of blood in our body?
Answer: 569
The weight of blood in our body is about 1/12' of our body. The average adult body has about 5liters of blood.
Question: 570
How do enzymes lower the activation energy?
Answer: 570
Enzymes lower the activation energy in several ways. • They may alter the shape of substrate and reduce the requirement of energy for this change. • Some enzymes do so by disrupting the charge distribution on substrates. • Enzymes may also lower activation energy by bringing substrates in the correct rientation to react
Question: 571
What are the risk factors of cardiovascular disorders ?
Answer: 571
The risk factors that lead to cardiovascular problem include advanced age , diabetes ,high blood concentration of low -density lipids (cholestrol) and trigylycerides , tobacco smoking, high blood pressure (hypertension ) ,obesity and sedentary lifestyles
Question: 572
Name secretions stored in posterior
Answer: 572
i. Oxytoci
ii Vasopressin
Question: 573
Where this lose occur?
Answer: 573
This loss may occur through stomata in leaves, through the cuticle present on leaf epidermis.
Question: 574
What is crossing over? Gove its one benefit .
Answer: 574
Crossing over : The non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange their segments and the phenomenon is known as crossing -over
Question: 575
What is thyroxin?What is its role?
Answer: 575
It is the hormone secreted by thyroid plan .
i. It increases the" breakdown of food and release of energy .
ii. It is responsible for growth of body.
Question: 576
What is phragmoplast ?
Answer: 576
In plant cell , during cytokinesis , vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus move to the middle of cell and fuse to form a membrane bounded disc called cell plate or phragmoplast
Question: 577
What are the two main types of white blood cell?How do they differ?
Answer: 577
There are main two types of white blood cell.
(i) Granulocytes: Granulocytes have granular cytoplasm, These include neutrophils, Eosinophil and basophils
Question: 578
How rhodopsin is synthesized?
Answer: 578
Body synthesizes rhodopsin from vitamin A.
Question: 579
Define optimum temperature.
Answer: 579
The specific temperature at which an enzyme works at its maximum rate is called as optimum temperature of that enzyme. Example: The optimum temperature for the maximum working speed of human enzymes is 37oC
Question: 580
In which processes ATP is used as energy source?
Answer: 580
ATP is the main energy source for majority of the cellular functions like the, synthesis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins), movement, transmission of nerve impulse, active transport. exocytosis and endocytosis etc.
Question: 581
What is Rh blood group system?
Answer: 581
It is discovered by Karl Landsteiner in this system, there are two blood group i.e Rh-positive and Rh- negative. These blood groups are distinct from each other on the basis of antigens called Rh-factors.
Question: 582
What is acromegaly?
Answer: 582
If somatotrophin is excessively produced after growing age, internal organs and body extremities along grow large. This condition is known as acromegaly
Question: 583
What are substrates ?
Answer: 583
The molecules , at which enzymes act is called substrates
Question: 584
Define G2 phase .
Answer: 584
In this phase , a cell prepares protein that are essential for mitosis . After G2 phase of interphase cell enters the division phase
Question: 585
How many cubic millimeter of blood RBCs present in males?
Answer: 585
A cubic millimeter of blood contains 5 to 5.5 of RBCs in males.
Question: 586
What is retina?
Answer: 586
It is inner layer of eye ball. It contains rods and cones and associated neurons.
Question: 587
Differentiate between bleds and apoptotic body .
Answer: 587
Bleds : In apoptosis , cell membrane makes buds which is filled with chromatin bodies them called bleds
Question: 588
Write the importance of water for plants .
Answer: 588
Water is vital to plants life. It is necessary not just for photosynthesis and turgor but much of the cellular activities occur in the presence of water molecules and the internal temperature of the plants also regulated by water .
Question: 589
Name two functions of ear ?
Answer: 589
1: Hearing
2: Balance or equilibrium of body
Question: 590
What is lock and key model?
Answer: 590
According to this model. both enzyme and substrate possess specific shapes that fit exactly into one another. This model explains enzyme specificity.
Question: 591
16. Define active site.
Answer: 591
Only a small portion of enzyme molecules is directly involved in catalysis. This catalytic region is known as active site.

Question: 592
Why reactivity of metals increases down the group ?
Answer: 592
Reactivity of metals increases down the group because down the group , size of atoms increases due to addition of shells . When the shells are added and the size of atoms increases the electropositive character increases due to which it becomes easier to lose its valence electron
Question: 593
What is aqueous humour?
Answer: 593
Anterior chamber of eye cavity contains clear fluid which is called aqueous humour.
Question: 594
What is bicuspid value?
Answer: 594
The opening hem cell right atrium and left ventricle is guarded. by a valve called bicuspid valve (it contains 2 flaps)• It allows passage of blood from left atrium to left ventricle and prevent back flow
Question: 595
Name vegetative and reproductive parts of Mustard Plant
Answer: 595
Reproductive parts: Flowers
Vegetative parts: Roots, stem, Branches
Question: 596
What will happen if the blood is transfused between the person having different blood groups?
Answer: 596
If the blood is transfused between person having different blood groups, it will result in agglutination (clumping cells) which will result in recipient's blood.
Question: 597
What is the function of pinna ?
Answer: 597
It helps to direct the sound waves into auditory canal
Question: 598
Describe G1 phase ?
Answer: 598
After production , cell starts cell cycle with G1 phase . During G1 , cell increases its supply proteins , increase number of its organelles and grow in size . This is marked by synthesis enzymes which are required in next phase
Question: 599
What are stomata?
Answer: 599
The tiny openings present in the epidermis of leaf through which gases enter or leave the cells are called stomata. It consists of two bean shaped cells called guard cells.
Question: 600
Define environmental biology .
Answer: 600
The branch of biology , which deals with the study of the interaction between the organisms and their environment
Question: 601
How are enzymes classified?
Answer: 601
Enzymes are usually very specific for the type of reaction and for the nature of the substrates.
Question: 602
Write comparison between cell level and tissue level
Answer: 602
Cell level: Cell or cell level organization is a unit of structure and function of living organisms
A cell level organization is composed of different subcellular organelles performing specific functions
Question: 603
Differentiate between Arteries and Veins
Answer: 603
These are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. The lumen of arteries is narrower than veins.

Question: 604
Define light reaction .
Answer: 604
During this phase light energy is captured and is used to make high energy molecules (ATP and NADPH ) these reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
Question: 605
What is composition of blood?
Answer: 605
Blood is specialized body fluid that is composed of a liquid called blood plasma and blood cells. It consist of 45% blood cell and 55% blood plasma
Question: 606
Does mitosis takes place in prokaryotes?
Answer: 606
Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotes cells . Prokaryotes cells undergo a process similar to proper mitosis called Binary fission
Question: 607
Define myopia (short sight) . How this problem is corrected ?
Answer: 607
The elongation of eye ball results in myopia such persons are not able o see distant objects clearly .This image of a distant object is formed behind retina . This problem can be corrected by using convex lens
Question: 608
What is diabetes mellitus ?
Answer: 608
If insulin is deficient in body ,blood sugar level rises ,This disorder is called diabetes mellitus ,person with diabetes have loss of body weight ,weakening of muscles and tiredness
Question: 609
What is meant by saturation of active sites?
Answer: 609
At high substrate concentration. when all the active sites of an enzyme are occupied and an," more substrate molecules do not find free active sites. This state is called saturation of active sites and reaction rate does not increase.
Question: 610
Define antigen .
Answer: 610
An antigen is a molecule that can stimulate an immense response (antibody production ) located in the surface of the RBC
Question: 611
In which industries enzymes are extensively used for fast chemical reactions?
Answer: 611
Enzymes are extensively used in: (i) Food industry (ii) Brewing industry (iii) Paper industry (iv) Biological detergents
Question: 612
What is Gigantism?
Answer: 612
If somatotrophin is excessively produced during, growing age growth rate increases. This condition is called gigantism.
Question: 613
Why blood is pulmonary circulation is low pressure than that of in systematic circulation ?
Answer: 613
Because it gives sufficient time to blood for gaseous exchange in lungs
Question: 614
What is synapsis ?
Answer: 614
The homologous chromosomes line up with each other and form pairs by process called synapsis
Question: 615
Which reactions proceed faster?Enzymes or non-enzymatic
Answer: 615
Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of time faster than those of comparable uncatalysed reaction.
Question: 616
Describe the presence of antigens and antibodies in different blood groups?
Answer: 616
The antibodies i.e. anti A & anti-B antibodies appear in the blood and are present according to the absence of corresponding antigen. In persons with blood group B, antigen B is present and they contain antibody A. The person having blood group AB, antibodies are absent and person having blood group 0 have antibodies A and B Both.
Question: 617
What is the contribution of Ibn-Al-Haytham ?
Answer: 617
1: He wrote 'book of optics '
2: He contributed to eye surgery , structure of eye image formation in eye and visual system
3: He described the principles of pinhole camera
Question: 618
Nucleus is visible in interphase while chromosomes are only visible in cell division stage . Why is that?
Answer: 618
Nuclear membrane breaks during cell division so there is no distinct nucleus . In interphase nuclear material is in the form of the chromatin which condenses during prophase to get the shape of chromosomes
Question: 619
What is the most common fuel to get energy ?
Answer: 619
The most common fuel used by the cell to get energy by cellular respiration is glucose
Question: 620
Birds have higher body temperature than mammals. What would ha' en to the activity of a bird's enzyme if it is given temperature of 37°C.
Answer: 620
Reaction will slow down.
Question: 621
Define pharmacology and immunology.
Answer: 621
Pharmacology : Pharmacology deals with the study of medicines and their effect on the body of living organisms.
Question: 622
Define meiosis
Answer: 622
Meiosis is the process by which one diploid eukaryotic cell divide to generate four 11,04 daughter cells. It usually happens during gamete formation.
Question: 623
S.Write two advantages of apoptosis
Answer: 623
1: Apoptosis can occur when a cell is damaged or undergoes stress conditions
Question: 624
What is the difference between oxidation and reduction?
Answer: 624
The loss of electrons is called oxidation while the gain of electrons is called reduction.
Question: 625
Define genetic?
Answer: 625
The study of genes and their role in inheritance is called Genetic
Question: 626
Write a note on specificity enzymes
Answer: 626
The specificity of different enzymes is determined by the shapes of their active sites. Enzymes are usually very specific for the type of reaction and for the nature of their substances Only a small portion of enzymes molecules is directly involved in catalyst . This catalyst region is known as active site .It recognizes and binds substrate and then carries out reaction.
Question: 627
medium. Define products of an enzyme action.
Answer: 627
When enzymes attaches with the substrate, a temporary enzyme — substrate (ES) complex i! formed — Enzyme catalyzes the reaction and substrate is transferred into product.

E+SES Complex E+P
Question: 628
What is meant by unicellular orgnaization
Answer: 628
In unicellular organization an organism is consists of only one cell like paramecium
Question: 629
What is bypass surgery?
Answer: 629
The surgery in which arteries or veins from elsewhere in the patients body are grafted to the coronary arteries to improve the blood supply to heart muscles is not sufficient but shortage is not enough to cause tissue death
Question: 630
What is the optimum temperature for human enzymes?
Answer: 630
The optimum temperature for the maximum working speed of human enzymes in 37°C.
Question: 631
What are products ?
Answer: 631
The molecules , which are produced after the action of enzymes on substrate molecules are called products
Question: 632
Are all biochemical catalysts proteins?
Answer: 632
All biochemical catalysts are not proteins, for example some RNA molecules also catalyze reactions
Question: 633
Why transpiration may be harmful process?
Answer: 633
Transpiration may be a harmful process in the sense that during the condition of drought, loss of water from plant results in serious desiccation, wilting and often death.
Question: 634
Define mitosis and give its one benefit .
Answer: 634
Mitosis is a type of cell division in which a cell divides into two daughter cells . Each with the same number of chromosomes as was present in parent cell
Question: 635
Why is anode made up of a metal to be deposited during electrolysis ?
Answer: 635
When the current is passed , the metal from anode dissolves in the solution and metallic ions migrate to the cathode and discharge or deposit in the cathode (object) As a result of this discharge , a thin layer of metal deposits on the object
Question: 636
What is binary fission ?
Answer: 636
It is a process in which It is the generation in which one organisms divide into two organisms
Question: 637
Will an enzyme which act on proteins, also act on starch?
Answer: 637
No. amylase will act on starch only to break it into glucose molecules and protease Will break ' down protein only. Similarly lipases break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
Question: 638
What is the difference between meiosis and meiosis 1 ?
Answer: 638
Meiosis :
1: Ni pairing of homologus chromosomes
2: Single chromosomes align to form metaphase plate
3: Daughter cell contain diploid number of chromosomes
Question: 639
What is the importance of anaerobic respiration?
Answer: 639
(i) Source of energy for anaerobic organisms
(ti) Source of energy for aerobic organisms in short supply of 0,
(iil) Source of many products (ethanol, cheese etc)
Question: 640
Define deafness ?
Answer: 640
It is a state in which hearing is not possible
Question: 641
Describe the effect of temperature on speed of enzyme action.
Answer: 641
Heating increases molecular motion. Thus the molecules of the substrate and enzyme move more quickly and chances of their bumping into each other are increased. As a result there is a greater probability of a reaction occurring. When temperature rises to a certain limit, heat adds in the activation energy and also provides kinetic energy for the reaction. So reactions are accelerated. But when temperature is raised well above the optimum temperature, heat energy increases the vibrations of atoms of enzyme and the globular structure of enzyme is lost.

Question: 642
What are peptide bonds?
Answer: 642
The forces of attraction, which hold amino acids to form proteins, are called peptide bond
Question: 643
What are fossils ?
Answer: 643
The remains of extinct organisms are called fossils
Question: 644
Define pulse .
Answer: 644
Pulse is the rhythmic expansion and contraction of an artery as the blood is forced through it by the regular contractions of heart
Question: 645
Define photosynthesis and Write down the general equation for photosynthesis?
Answer: 645
The process, which involves synthesis of glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll, with oxygen as a by - product is called photosynthesis.
6CO2 + 12H20 + Light energy —> C61-11206 + 602 + 6H20
Question: 646
What is pituitary gland ? Names its lobes ?
Answer: 646
It is a pear -shaped ,gland attached to the hypothalamus of brain Lobes : 1: Anterior lobes 2: Posterior lobe
Question: 647
Write the names of vegetative organs of Plants
Answer: 647
Roots, stem branches and leaves are the vegetative organs of plants which do not take part in the sexual reproduction of the plant
Question: 648
What is the result of denaturation of enzymes?
Answer: 648
Denaturation of enzymes results in rapid decrease in the rate of enzymes action and it may be blocked completely.
Question: 649
S. phase of interphase is important and cell can never divide without it . Justify .
Answer: 649
In S-pahse the cell duplicates its chromosomes the DNA molecules of each chromosomes is copies and new protein molecules are attached the result is that each chromosomes consists of two sisters chromatids , Which contain identical genes . In the absence of s-phase no replication of DNA will result in absence of chromosomes with two sister chromatids . Hence cell division will not occur
Question: 650
In mammals when RBCs lost its nucleus?
Answer: 650
When a red blood cell matures. its nucleus is lost.
Question: 651
Define Heart.
Answer: 651
The heart is a muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the blood vessels by repeated contractions. It is an important organ of circulatory system.
Question: 652
In What ways the respiratory energy is used in the body of organisms?
Answer: 652
All organisms need free energy for performing different activities and running various process of metabolism. The energy released by the process of respiration is utilized by different cellular activities such as:
(i) For the synthesis of proteins.
(ii) For the process of active transport.
(iii) For maintaining the temperature of body
(iv) For mechanical work (Contraction of muscles & beating of cilia and flagella). (v) For the process of phagocytosis.
(vi) For the process of pinocytosis.
(vii) For the process of exocytosis.
Question: 653
What is glycolysis where does this reaction occur ?
Answer: 653
Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm and oxygen is not involved in this stage . That is why , it occurs in both types of respiration i-e aerobic and anaerobic . In glycolysis , glucose (6C) molecule is broken into two molecules of Pyruvic acid (3C)
Question: 654
What is the main use of enzymes in paper industry?
Answer: 654
Paper Industry: Enzyme break starch to lower its viscosity that aids in making paper.
Question: 655
Define Colonial Organization and give example
Answer: 655
Colonial Organization: In colonial type of cellular do not have any division of labour amony them Each unicellular organismal in a colony lives its own life and does not depend on other cells for its vital requirements
Question: 656
Define bioenergetics .
Answer: 656
The study of energy relationships and energy transformations (conversions) in living organisms is called bioenergetics.
Question: 657
How can leukaemia be cured ?
Answer: 657
It can be cured by bone marrow transplant , which is in most case effective but very expensive treatment . The patients needs to change the blood regularly with the normal blood , got from donors
Question: 658
What structures and phenomena are involved in the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants?
Answer: 658
Intake of Water and Carbon dioxide Intake of Water: Water and carbon dioxide are the raw materials of photosynthesis. Plants have mechanisms for the intake and transport of these raw materials. Water, present in soil, is absorbed by roots and root hairs through osmosis. This eater is eventually transported to leaves through xylem vessels.
Question: 659
What happens in cellular respiration to and oxygen ?
Answer: 659
In cellular respiration , food is oxidized to CO2while O2is reduced into H2O
Question: 660
What is the function of vasopressin?
Answer: 660
It increase the rate of reabsorption of water from nephrons.
Question: 661
Describe major contributions of Jabir Bin Hayan
Answer: 661
Jabir Bin Hayan introduced experimental investigation in chemistry and also wrote a number of books on plants and animals . His famous books are Al-Nabatat and Al-Haywan
Question: 662
What are the main components of human blood circulatory
Answer: 662
Circulatory system are blood, heart and blood vessels.
Question: 663
Give a reason for the creation of transpiration pull?
Answer: 663
Following are the reasons for the creation of transpirational pull.
• Water is held in a tube (xylem) that has small diameter.
• Water molecules adhere to the walls of xylem tube (adhesion).
• Water molecules cohere to each other (cohesion).
• These attractions make an overall tension among water molecules. This tension forms 'column of water. The columns of water move from root to shoot and the water content of the soil enter in these columns
Question: 664
What is a nucleotide?
Answer: 664
A nucleotide is a large molecule formed by joining ribose sugar -- phosphate - one nitrogenous base.
Question: 665
How transpiration is important for plants ?
Answer: 665
Transpiration creates a pulling force called transpiration pull, which is principally responsible for the conduction of water and salts from roots to the aerial parts of the body
Question: 666
What are products?
Answer: 666
products? The molecules, which are produced after the action of enzymes on substrate molecules are called products
Question: 667
Differentiate between Cell biology and Histology.

Answer: 667
Cell Biology : The study of the structures and function of cell and cell organelles is called cell biology
Question: 668
When is blood transferred ?
Answer: 668
Blood transfusion can be life saving in some situations , such as massive loss of blood due to injury or can be used to replace blood lost during surgery . People suffering from anemia ,haemophilia , thalassaemia or sickle - cell disease require frequent blood transfusion
Question: 669
Write down the summary of the events of dark reactions.
Answer: 669
i) CO2 molecules are combined with 5-carbon compound to form temporary 6- carbon compounds, each split into two 3-carbon compounds. (ii) The 3-carbon compounds are reduced to 3-carbon carbohydrates by using g energy of ATP and hydrogen from NADPH. (iii) 3-Carbon carbohydrates are used to manufacture glucose and are also used to regenerate the original 5-carbon compounds. This step also utilize ATP
Question: 670
Write down the scientific name of Frog and two characteristic
Answer: 670
The scientific name of Frog is Rana tigrine
Question: 671
How would you differentiate between atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis ?
Answer: 671
Atherosclerosis: atherosclerosis is commonly referred to as it is a chronic disease in which accumulation of fatty materials , cholesterol or fibrin in arteries . When this condition is severe , arteries , can no longer expand and contract properly and blood moves through them with very difficult
Question: 672
What are exocrine glands ? Give example .
Answer: 672
These are ducted glands e.g liver, salivary glands
Question: 673
How many enzymes are known?
Answer: 673
There are over 2000 known enzymes, each of which is involved in one specific chemical reaction.
Question: 674
Define Biotechnology ?
Answer: 674
Biotechnology deals with the practical application of the living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind
Question: 675
What is fibrinogen.
Answer: 675
Fibrinogen is a blood clotting protein found in plasma.
Question: 676
Define ATP and who discovered ATP?
Answer: 676
The major energy currency of all cells is a nucleotide called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP was discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann.
Question: 677
How many cubic millimeter of blood RBCs is present in female?
Answer: 677
A cubic millimeter of blood contain 4 - 4.5 million of RBCs in female.
Question: 678
How will you differentiate between bolus and chyme?
Answer: 678
Bolus:1:During the processes of chewing, lubrication and semi-digestion, the pieces of food are rolled up by the tongue into small, slippery, spherical mass called bolus.2:We swallow bolus and push it in oesophagus through pharynx.
Question: 679
Which type of bond is present between groups of ATP?
Answer: 679
The covalent bond connecting two phosphates high-energy bond and is indicated by "tilde"
Question: 680
What are symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
Answer: 680
i. Increases in energy production
ii. Increased heart-beat
iii. Frequent sweating
iv. Shivering of hand
Question: 681
Can electrons be an energy source? How?
Answer: 681
Electrons can he an energy source. It depends upon their location and arrangement in atoms. For example: N‘ hen they are present in oxygen. they make stable association with oxygen atom and are not good energy source. But if electrons are dragged away from oxygen and attached to some other atom e.g. carbon or hydrogen, they make unstable association. They try to move back to oxygen and when this happens, energy is released.
Question: 682
What is the cause of dwarfism?
Answer: 682
If somatotrophin is deficient during growing age growth rate decreases. This condition is called dwarfism.
Question: 683
What is the average life of R.B.C?
Answer: 683
The average life of R.B.C.s is that 2-10 million red blood cells are formed and destroyed every second.
Question: 684
Which are factors that can affect the rate of enzymes reaction?
Answer: 684
Temperature. substrate concentration and pii affect the rate of enzyme reaction.
Question: 685
is the percentage of blood in human body ?
Answer: 685
In a healthy person , plasma constitutes about 55% by volume of the blood and cells or cell - like bodies about 45% of the blood
Question: 686
Why is it said that all life forms are dependent On photosynthesis?
Answer: 686
Photosynthesis is the synthesis of glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll, with oxygen as a by-product. Photosynthesis is an anabolic (building) process and is an important component of bioenergetics in living systems. It is the most important biochemical pathway and nearly all life depends on it.
Question: 687
How blood is transfused considering Rh blood group system?
Answer: 687
h-positive blood group can be transfused to Rh- positive recipient because recipient's blood already has Rh- antigens and it will not produce anti-Rh antibody similarly Rh-negative blood group can be transfused to Rh- negative Rh-negative.

Question: 688
Why do carnivorous plants eat small animals?
Answer: 688
The plants, which grown in nitrogen deficiency soil eat small animals, they digested products of animals which are a good supply of nitrogen.
Question: 689
Define osmosis.
Answer: 689
The movement of water from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution. through a permeable membrane (cell membrane) is called osmosis.
Question: 690
What is Science ?
Answer: 690
Science is the study in which observations are made, experiments are done and logical conclusions are drawn in order to understand the principal of nature
Question: 691
Transpiration is a necessary evil , Give comments
Answer: 691
Transpiration is called a necessary evil it means that transpiration is a potentially harmful process but it is unavoidable too
Question: 692
In which portion of cell , three stages of aerobic respiration ?
Answer: 692
1: Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm oxygen is not involved in this stage . That is why , it occurs in both types of respiration i-e aerobic and anaerobic
2: Krebs cycle and electron transport chain occur in mitochondria where oxygen is essential
Question: 693
What do you mean by vascular surgery ?
Answer: 693
Vascular surgery is a field in surgery in which disease of arteries and veins (like thrombosis ) are managed by surgical methods . A vascular surgeon treats the disease of all parts of blood circulatory system except that of heart and brain
Question: 694
Which systems are present in Human for transport of materials?
Answer: 694
: Like other higher animals, the task of the transport of different material in human body is performed by two systems. i.e. blood circulatory system and lymphatic system. The two systems are well coordinated and associated with each other.
Question: 695
What are biocatalysts?
Answer: 695
Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they act as biocatalysts, which speed up and regulate metabolic pathways.
Question: 696
What is meant by divisions of labour in a cell?
Answer: 696
Each organelle in a cell has been assigned a specific function which it has to perform , so all activities of a cell are divided among many organelles, this is called division of labour
Question: 697
Who proposed Lock and Key model and induced lit model of enzyme action?
Answer: 697
A German chemist Emil Fischer in 1894, proposed the lock and key model. In 1958 an American biologist Daniel Koshland proposed the induced fit model, which was a modification of lock and key model.
Question: 698
State the best method for protection of metal from corrosion .
Answer: 698
The best method for protection against the corrosion of metals exposed to acidic conditions is coating the metal with other metal . Corrosion resistant metals like Zn , Sn and Cr are coated on the surface of iron to protect it from corrosion
Question: 699
What are the functions of root ?
Answer: 699
In addition to anchoring the plant , roots perform two other vital functions
1: They absorb water and salts from soil
2: They provide conducting tissues for distributing these substances to the tissues of the stem
Question: 700
Define photolysis.
Answer: 700
The breakdown of compounds in the presence of light is called photolysis.
Question: 701
What is done in the professional study of biotechnology?
Answer: 701
It is the latest profession in the field of biology. Biotechnologists study and work for the production of useful products through microorganisms
e.g enzymes ,antibiotics etc
Question: 702
What is the difference between intracellular and extra cellular enzymes?
Answer: 702
The enzymes. which work inside the cell. are called intracellular enzyme e.g. enzymes of glycolysis working in cytoplasm.
Question: 703
What is the role of manganese in plant's growth?
Answer: 703
Manganese is involved in enzyme activity for photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen metabolism.
Question: 704
On what basis blood is classified into different groups?
Answer: 704
Blood group on the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells.
Question: 705
How is the activity of an enzyme affected?
Answer: 705
File activity of an enzyme is affected by any change in conditions that alters its chemistry and its shape

Question: 706
What is blood cross match?
Answer: 706
It is used for the confirmation of no agglutination: blood samples of donor and recipient are cross-matched.

Question: 707
What is the concentrated and dilute solution?
Answer: 707
The solution, which has more salts is called concentrated solution and the solution which has less salts is called dilute solution.
Question: 708
How is water taken in by plants for photosynthesis?
Answer: 708
Water, present in soil, is absorbed by roots and root hairs through osmosis. This water is eventually transported to leaves through xylem vessels.
Question: 709
Define absorption
Answer: 709
The process of diffusion of digested food into blood and lymph is called absorption.
Question: 710
Differentiate between anabolism and catabolism
Answer: 710
Anabolism : Anabolism includes the biochemical reactions in which larger molecules are synthesized . Energy is utilized in anabolism

Example : Photosynthesis
Question: 711
Name secretion of ovaries .
Answer: 711
1: Estrogen
2: Progesterone
Question: 712
Describe the structure of veins.
Answer: 712
: The walls of veins are composed of the three layers. The tunica externa composed of connective tissue, tunica media made up of muscles and elastic tissue. tunica intimae made up of endothelia cells.
Question: 713
How are leaves adapted to their function?
Answer: 713
1: The leaves on the branches of plants are arranged in such a manner that they get maximum of sunlight for photosynthesis . Majority of leaves are flat . With maximum of surface area for maximum absorption of sunlight
Question: 714
What are the functions of these processes in organisms?
Answer: 714
These processes ensure the maintenance, growth and reproduction of organisms.
Question: 715
What are Islets of Langerhans ? Name their secretions
Answer: 715
The group of endocrine cells found in pancreas which produce hormones are called islets of Langerhans
Secretions :
2: Glucagon
Question: 716
What are limiting factors in photosynthesis ? Give two example
Answer: 716
Any environmental factor the absence or deficiency of which can decrease the rate of a metabolic reaction , is called limiting factor for that reaction
Question: 717
. Write difference between pericycle and endodermis
Answer: 717
Outside the conducting tissues there is a narrow layer of thin walled cells the pericycle. A single layer of cells i.e. endodermis surrounds this per cycle
Question: 718
What is optimum pH?
Answer: 718
A narrow range of pH at which all enzymes work at their maximum rate is called optimum pH.
Question: 719
What are different groups of living organisms ?
Answer: 719
There are five groups of living organisms
1: Prokaryotes
2: Protist
3: Fungi
4: Plants
5: Animals
Question: 720
Who first used the term enzymes?
Answer: 720
In 1878, German Physiologist Winhelm Kuhne first used the term enzyme.
Question: 721
How can the deficiency of vitamin A cause blindness?
Answer: 721
When vitamin A is inadequate, the lack of rhodopsin makes it difficult to see in dim light. if it is left untreated it can cause blindness. Deficiency of vitamins A is the leading causes of blindness in children worldwide. One of the symptoms of vitamin A deficiency is "night-blindness" It is temporary condition but if left untreated it can cause permanent -blindness
Question: 722
Define population .
Answer: 722
A population is defined as a group of organism of the same species located at the same place , in the same time
Question: 723
What is angina pectoris ? Write its symptoms .
Answer: 723
Angina pectoris means chest pain but not as severe as in heart attack. The pain may occur in heart and often in left arm and shoulder . It is the warning sign that the blood supply to heart muscles is not sufficient but shortage is not enough to cause tissue death
Question: 724
What is the function of lipids in body and what are their sources ?
Answer: 724
Lipids play many roles in bodies . They are used to form membranes , the sheaths surrounding neurons , and certain hormone lipids are also extremely useful energy
Question: 725
Which affects the rate of transpiration ?
Answer: 725
There are following factors affect the rate of transpiration
1: Temperature
2: Air humidity
3:Air movement
4: Leaf surface area
Question: 726
Which models explain the mechanism of enzyme action?
Answer: 726
Two models have been proposed to explain the mechanism of enzyme action.
(i ) Lock and key model (ii) Induced fit model
Question: 727
Define metabolism .
Answer: 727
The set of biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life is called metabolism
Question: 728
How does stomata open ?
Answer: 728
When guard cells (bean shaped cells ) get water and become turgid ,their shapes are like two beans and the stomata between them opens
Question: 729
Differentiate between Morphology and Histology .
Write down the definition of Morphology?
Answer: 729
Morphology The branch deals with the study of from and structures of living organisms
Question: 730
What is the use of enzymes in brewing industry?
Answer: 730
Enzymes weak starch and proteins. The products are used by yeast for fermentation (to produce alcohol)
Question: 731
Explain Medicine and surgery career in biology ?
Answer: 731
Medicine:The profession of medicine deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in human .

Question: 732
What is meant by denaturation of enzyme?
Answer: 732
When temperature is raised above the optimum temperature, the heat energy increases the vibrations of atoms of enzyme molecules and globular structure of enzyme is lost. This is known as denaturation of enzyme.
Question: 733
What are harmful effects due to excessive nitrogen?
Answer: 733
Too much nitrogen can reduce yields, cause yellowing of the leaves and stunt growth.
Question: 734
Explain that electrons can be source of energy during oxidation reduction reaction ?
Answer: 734
During light reaction of photosynthesis the electrons are emitted first from the thylakoid membrane and then these electrons are passes through the electron transport chain also and help in the formation of energy rich molecules like ATP and NADPH
Question: 735
What is activation energy ?
Answer: 735
All chemical reactions requires activation energy .It is defined as minimum energy requires to start a reaction and to right direction
Question: 736
What are situated adrenal glands
Answer: 736
These are situated above kidney
Question: 737
Who gave the concept of metabolism first of all ?
Answer: 737
The concept of metabolism was first of all given by Ibn-e-nafees who stated that the body and its parts are always undergoing change
Question: 738
What are different phases of aerobic respiration ?
Answer: 738
1: In first phase , a molecule of glucose (6-C) is broken down into two pyruvic acid (3-C) molecules
Question: 739
How electroplating of zinc is carried out ?
Answer: 739
The zinc is deposited on the metal buy immersing it in a chemical bath containing electrolyte zinc sulphate . A current is applied which results in depositing of zinc on the target metal i-e cathode
Question: 740
What is cardiac cycle ?
Answer: 740
The alternating relaxation contractions cycle and one complete cardiac cycle makes one heart beat .
It has three phases :
1: Cardiac cycle
2: Atrial systole
3: Ventricle systole
Question: 741
Write two advantages of Brassica plant/ mustard plant
Answer: 741
Advantages :
1 The plant body of brassica is used as vegetable
2: It seeds are used for extracting oil
Question: 742
How are humidity affect of temperature on the rate of transpiration ?
Answer: 742
Air humidity : When air is dry , water vapour diffuse more quickly from the surface of mesophyll cells into leaf air spaces and then from air spaces to outside . This increase the rate of transpiration . In humid air , the rate of the diffusion of water vapours is reduced and the rate of transpiration is low
Question: 743
State physical properties of metals
Answer: 743
1: Almost all metals are solids (except mercury)
2: Metals have high melting and boiling points
Question: 744
How is energy used in life processes?
Answer: 744
Various life processes in organisms involve constant flow of energy. This energy flow comprises the acquisition transformation, and use of energy for various life p like growth. movement. reproduction etc
Question: 745
What are the functions of organelles ?
Answer: 745
Each type of organelle is specialized to perform a specific function
Question: 746
What is NAD+?
Answer: 746
A NAD+ (Nicotinamide adenine, dinucleotide) is a coenzyme that takes electrons and hydrogen ions and is thus reduced to NADH. One form of this coenzyme also carries phosphate with it, so is called NADP+.
Question: 747
Name the major biological issues of modern age
Answer: 747
Human population growth , infectious disease , addictive drugs and pollution are the major biological issues today
Question: 748
What is induced fit model?
Answer: 748
According to this model, active site is not a rigid structure rather it is molded into required shape to perform its function. Induced fit model is more acceptable than "lock and key" model of enzyme action.
Question: 749
Define Anatomy ?
Answer: 749
The study of internal structures is called Anatomy .
Question: 750
What are Pigments?Describe their function?
Answer: 750
Pigments are the substances that absorb visible light. Different pigments absorb light, of different wavelengths (colours). Chlorophylls absorb mainly blue and red lights . Some wavelengths mot absorbed by chlorophyll 'a' are very effectively absorbed by accessory pigments and vice-versa
Question: 751
. Define capillaries
Answer: 751
Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels present in tissues. These are the vessels through which exchange of materials between blood and tissue fluid is carried out through capillaries
Question: 752
Define angioplasty?
Answer: 752
The mechanical widening of a narrowed or total obstructed blood vessels is called angioplasty
Question: 753
What is the role of boron in plant's growth?
Answer: 753
Boron is important in sugar transport. cell division. and synthesizing certain enzymes
Question: 754
What are vascular plants ?
Answer: 754
The plants which have vascular tissues i-e xylem and phloem are called vascular plants . Xylem tissues carry water and salts from soil to mesophyll cells of leaves . Phloem tissues transport prepared food from leaves to other parts of plants
Question: 755
Name parts of adrenal gland and their hormones .
Answer: 755
Each adrenal gland has two parts :
1: Outer part is called adrenal cortex with secretes corticosteroids
2:Central part is called adrenal medulla which secrets adrenaline
Question: 756
Define biophysics.
Answer: 756
It deals with the study of the principles of physics, which are applicable to biological phenomena. For example there is a simil ity between the working principles of lever in physics and limbs of animal in biology
Question: 757
Define digestion .
Answer: 757
The process of breaking up complex substances into simple substances is called digestion
Question: 758
What are two major veins ?
Answer: 758
Two major veins are superior vena cave and inferior vena cava
Question: 759
How do organisms get energy?
Answer: 759
Organisms obtain energy by metabolizing the food they eaf or prepare. Food con potential energy in its bonds. When these bonds are broken down, a large amount of kinetic energy is released. Some of this energy is stored in the form of potential energy bonds of ATP molecules while the rest escapes as heat
Question: 760
What are amino acids?
Answer: 760
Acids are building blocks of proteins. These are of 20 different types.
Question: 761
Define genetics ?
Answer: 761
The study of genes and their role in inheritance is called genetics . Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other
Question: 762
Who discovered the ATP molecule ? What is the function in cell?
Answer: 762
The major energy currency of all cells is a nucleotide called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) . It is main energy source for majority of the cellular functions like synthesis of macro molecules endocytosis etc . It has ability to store and release energy . It was discovered in 1929 by Karl Lorhmann and was proposed to be main energy transfer molecule in the cell by the noble prize winner , Fritz Lipmann in 1941
Question: 763
What is difference between Zoology and Botany ?
Answer: 763
Zoology The major division of the biology which deals with the study of animals is called zoology
Question: 764
How is energy produced by respiration ?
Answer: 764
There are two types of respiration
1: Aerobic 2: Anaerobic
Question: 765
What is the main use of enzymes in paper industry ?
Answer: 765
Enzyme break starch to lower its viscosity that aids in making paper
Question: 766
What role is played by iron in humans ?
Answer: 766
Iron plays a major role in oxygen transport and storage . It is a component of hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscles cells . Cellular energy production also requires iron . It acts as enzymes cofactor . Iron also support immune function
Question: 767
How does human heart work as double pump?
Answer: 767
Human heart work as a double pump . It receives de-oxygenated (with less oxygen ) blood from body and pumps into lungs, At the same time , it receives oxygenated with more oxygen) blood from lungs and pumps it to all body . Inside heart chambers ,the deoxygenated and oxygenated bloods are kept separated .
Question: 768
Explain with an example that in organism , the function , processes and activities of various organs and organ system are co-ordinated
Answer: 768
When a man is engaged in continuous and hard exercise not only his muscles but also there is an increase in the rate of respiration and heart beat . This accelerated rate of the respiration and heart beat supplies more oxygen and food to the muscle which they need for continuous work
Question: 769
Define Biochemistry and compounds and Morphology?
Answer: 769
Biochemistry : Biochemistry deals with the study of the chemistry of different compound and chemical reactions occurring in living organisms.
Question: 770
What is Electron transport chain.?
Answer: 770
Electron Transport chain is the final step of cellular respiration . It is the transfer of electron on an electron transport chain. In this step. electrons and hydrogen ions. These electrons are taken up by a series of e electron carriers.
Question: 771
What is difference between cohesion and adhesion .
Answer: 771
Cohesion : Water molecules cohere to each other
Question: 772
What is myocardial infraction ?
Answer: 772
It is more commonly known as heart attack and is a medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted and leads the death of heart muscles
Question: 773
Where are fermenting abilities of micro -organisms being used by scientists ?
Answer: 773
Scientists have used the fermenting abilities of fungi and bacteria for the benefit of mankind . For example , the fermenting powers of bacteria are used for making cheese and yogurt . Fermentation in yeast is used in brewing and baking industries . Similarly soya sauce is made through the fermentation by a fungus Aspergillus
Question: 774
Define socio-biology ?
Answer: 774
Socio biology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of social behaviour of animals that make societies
Question: 775
What is the role of parathormone ?
Answer: 775
It increased the level of calcium ions in blood
Question: 776
Which processes generate and break ATP?
Answer: 776
ATP is generated by energy-releasing processes and is broken down by energy consuming processes, in this way ATP transfers energy between metabolic reactions
Question: 777
What is meant by taxonomy ?
Answer: 777
it is study of naming and classification of organisms into group and subgroups.
Question: 778
What are nutrients?
Answer: 778
The elements and compounds that an organism obtains and uses as energy source or for the synthesis of new materials are called nutrients.
Question: 779
what is meant by pharamacology ?
Answer: 779
Pharamacology is the stud of drugs and their efffects on the system of the human body
Question: 780
Name the metal which is used for galvanizing iron
Answer: 780
Zinc metal is used for galvanizing iron
Question: 781
Define Habitat ?
Answer: 781
Habitat means the are of the environmental in which organism lives .
Question: 782
What is the effect of temperature on the rate of transpiration?
Answer: 782
Higher temperature reduces the humidity of surroundings air and also increases the kinetic energy of water molecules . In this way it increases the rate of transpiration . The rate of transpiration double with every rise 10 oC in temperature i-e 40-45 oC cause closure of stomata , so transpiration stops and plant does not losses the much needed water
Question: 783
What are redox reactions?
Answer: 783
The oxidation and reduction reactions always run simultaneously and are called redox reaction. Redox reactions are direct source of energy for all life processes. Redox reactions involve exchange of electrons between atoms.
Question: 784
Name any four unicellular organisms
Answer: 784
1: Amoeba
3: Euglena
4: Virus
Question: 785
How many elements are found in nature ?
Answer: 785
There are 92 different types of elements are found in nature
Question: 786
Who proposed ATP as main energy transfer molecule in the cell?
Answer: 786
The Nobel prize winner, Fritz Lipmann in 1941 proposed ATP as main energy transfer molecule.
Question: 787
Where are the enzymes of glycolysis present?
Answer: 787
Enzymes of glycolysis are present in cytoplasm.
Question: 788
Write the name of three main division of biology ?
Answer: 788
Three main division of biology are given below:
Zoology:This division of biology deals with the study of animals
Botany:This division of biology deals with the study of plants
Microbiology: This division of biology deals with the study of micro-organisms
Question: 789
Define blood Transfusion
Answer: 789
Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood based products from one person (donor) into the circulatory system of another (recipient).
Question: 790
Which careers can be adopted by students of biology?
Answer: 790
(i) Medicine/Surgery (ii) Animals husbandry (iii) Fisheries (iv) Agriculture (v) Horticulture (vi) Farming (vii) Forestry (VW) Biotechnology
Question: 791
What are proteins?
Answer: 791
Proteins are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins are composed of amino acids. These amino acids are used to produce new body protein and to replace damaged proteins
Question: 792
How is energy released from ATP ?
Answer: 792
Energy is released as bonds between phosphate groups of ATP are broken down . When one phosphate group separates . ATP is changed to ADP and 7.3k Calories /mole of ATP is formed
Question: 793
What is meant by hypertension ?
Answer: 793
A condition in which blood pressure is higher than normal is called hypertension . Normal B.P is 120/180 mm/Hg
Question: 794
What are inorganic fertilizers?
Answer: 794
Naturally occurring inorganic fertilizers include rock phosphate. elemental sulphur gypsum that are not chemically modified. Most in organic fertilizer dissolve readily In immediately available to plants for uptake.
Question: 795
Write the chemical equation aerobic
Answer: 795
The chemical equation aerobic respiration
C6H12+6026CO2 + 6H20 Energy
Question: 796
What are the contributions of Bu Ali Sim ?
Answer: 796
He is honoured as the founder of medicine and called as Avicenna in the west. He was a physician, philosopher, astronomer and poet. One of his books "Al-anon fi Tib" is known as the canon of medicine in West
Question: 797
What is the advantage of galvanizing ?
Answer: 797
Advantage of galvanizing is that zinc protects the iron is exposed to the air and water , a galvanic cell is established and iron rust rapidly
Question: 798
What is transport?
Answer: 798
Transport means movement of material from one region to the other in the organisms
Question: 799
Quantitative observations are better in biological method . How ?
Answer: 799
Quantitative observations are considered more accurate than qualitative ones because the quantitative observations are invariable and measurable and can be recorded in terms of number
Question: 800
What are harmful effects of deficiency of calcium ?
Answer: 800
Deficiency of calcium causes spontaneous discharge of nerve impulses , which may result in tetany . Bones also becomes soft , blood clots slowly , and wounds heal slowly
Question: 801
What is difference between leaf epidermis of aquatic plants and terrestrial plants ?
Answer: 801
Terrestrial plants have more stomata in the lower epidermis of their leaves while aquatic plants have more stomata in the upper epidermis
Question: 802
Name some plant tissues?
Answer: 802
1: Epidermal tissues
2: Ground tissues
Question: 803
What is the function of cuticle ?
Answer: 803
The cuticle is a waxy layer on leaves ,which is made up of cutin and it lessens the evaporation of water from surface of leaves
Question: 804
Differentiate between micro-molecular and macro-molecular ? with example
Answer: 804
Micro-molecular:Molecular with low molecular weight are called micro-molecular
Example:Glucose, Water
Question: 805
Which organisms carry out photosynthesis?
Answer: 805
Autotrophic organisms like plants, some protists and some bacteria use inorganic raw materials such as carbon dioxide and water for the preparation of organic food, which IUS primarily comprises of carbohydrates
Question: 806
Define platelets ?
Answer: 806
Platelets are the parts of blood . They are not cells but are fragments of large cells of bone marrow called megakaryocytes . They do not have any nucleus and any pigment
Question: 807
What are the sources of elements to plants?
Answer: 807
Plants absorb carbon and oxygen from air. while other elements are absorbed from soil.
Question: 808
How is carbon dioxide taken in by plants?
Answer: 808
The air that enters leaf through tiny pores (stomata) reaches into the air spaces present around mesophyll cells. This air carries CO2, which gets absorbed in the thin layer of water surrounding mesophyll cells. From here, the carbon dioxide diffuses into mesophyll cells.
Question: 809
Which sphincters play role in the movement of food in and out of stomach?
Answer: 809
sphincters: Sphincters are the openings which are guarded by muscles. Stomach has two sphincters Cardiac sphincter: Cardiac sphincter is between stomach and oesophagus.Pyloric sphincter Pyloric sphincter is between stomach and small intestine. Bolus enters stomach front oesophagus S. through cardiac sphincter.
Question: 810
Write about Lubb- Dubb
Answer: 810
: When ventricle contact the tricuspid and bicuspid valves close and lubh sound is produced. Similarly when ventricles relax, the semilunar valves close and dub. Sound is produced. Lubb-dub can be heard with the help of a stethoscope.
Question: 811
Differentiate between Morphology and physiology ?
Answer: 811
Morphology: The branch deals with the study of from and structures of living organisms.
Question: 812
What is Z- Scheme?
Answer: 812
The whole series of light reactions is called as Z- scheme due to its Z- shaped flow chart
Question: 813
Differentiate between micromolecules and macromolecules
Answer: 813
Micromolecules :The molecule with low molecular weight are called micro-molecule
Example : glucose ,water etc
Question: 814
Define physiology and anatomy.
Answer: 814
Physiology: This branch deals with the study of the functions of different parts of living organisms
Question: 815
Define microbiology ?
Answer: 815
The division of biology , which deals the study of microorganisms such as bacteria are called microbiolgy
Question: 816
Differentiate between Eoslnophils and Basophlls.
Answer: 816
Eosinophlls :
These can break Inflammatory substances and kill parasites.

Question: 817
Write down the summary of the events of light reactions.
Answer: 817
When chlorophyll molecules absorb light. their energy level increases and their electrons are emitted.
• Electrons are passed to electron transport chain to produce ATP.
Light also breaks water molecule and oxygen is released. The hydrogen atoms of water give electrons to chlorophyll and become ions.
The electrons of chlorophyll, after the production of ATP, and the hydrogen ions of water are used for the reduction of NADI)* into NADPH.
Question: 818
Differentiate between morphology and anatomy .
Answer: 818
Morphology : The branch of biology , which deals with the study of the structure and forms of living organism is called morphology
Question: 819
Differentiate between theory and law .
Answer: 819
Theory : The hypotheses that stand the test of time (often tested and never rejected ) are called theories

Example: cell theory
Question: 820
Define electroplating
Answer: 820
Electroplating is depositing off one metal over the other by means of electrolysis
Question: 821
What is the cause of hypothyroidism?
Answer: 821
It is caused by under production of thyroxin. It is characterized by low energy production and slowing down heart beat.
Question: 822
Define cofactor and coenzymes .
Answer: 822
Cofactors : The non-protein molecules or ions which are required by enzymes to show full activity are called cofactors . Cofactors may be inorganic (e.g metal ions ) or organic (e.g flavin and heme )
Question: 823
If we supply inorganic and organic fertilizers to a plant, which one would be first available to the plant for uptake?
Answer: 823
Inorganic fertilizer
Question: 824
Explain with an example that biologists cannot usually check every situation where a hypothesis might apply .
Answer: 824
Biologists cannot usually check every situation where a hypothesis might apply . Let's consider a hypothesis . All plant cells have a nucleus . Biologists cannot examine every living plant and every plant that has ever lived to see if this hypothesis is false , Instead biologists generate deduction using reasoning . From the above hypothesis , a biologists can make the following deduction . If I examine cells from a blade of grass ,then each one will have a nucleus .
Question: 825
What is the role of magnesium in plants?
Answer: 825
Magnesium is a structural component of chlorophyll. It is also necessary for the functioning plant enzymes to produce carbohydrates, fats and sugars. It is used for fruit and nut formation and essential for germination of seeds.
Question: 826
what are different types of fermentation or anaerobic respiration ?
Answer: 826
There are two types of fermentation
1: Alcoholic fermentation 2: Lactic acid fermentation
Question: 827
What are the function of Insulin and glucagon ?
Answer: 827
Insulin : Decrease the blood sugar level
Question: 828
Define alcoholic fermentation .
Answer: 828
The type of anaerobic respiration in which pyruvic acid is further broken break down into alcohol (C2H5OH) and CO2 is called alcoholic respiration . It occurs in bacteria and yeasts .
Pyruvic acid➜Ethyl alcohol + carbondioxide
Question: 829
What is necessary for the formation of a hypothesis ?
Answer: 829
A great deal of careful and creative thinking is necessary for the formulation of a hypothesis
Question: 830
What is the role of Sulphur in plant's growth?
Answer: 830
Sulphur is component of proteins, vitamins and enzymes.
Question: 831
What is meaning of malaria ?
Answer: 831
The Italian words 'mala' means bad and 'aria' means air
Question: 832
Write role and names of two scientists who work on Blood Circulatory system
Answer: 832
Two important scientists Ibn-e-Nafees and William scientist who described the pathway of blood
Question: 833
what are parasites ? Define Parasitology .
Answer: 833
Parasites:parasites are the organisms that take food and shelter from living hosts and in return harm them
Question: 834
How is water and salt reached to mesophyll cells in vascular plants ?
Answer: 834
In non-vascular plants xylem tissues carry water and salts to mesophyll cells
Question: 835
Which membrane is present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Answer: 835
Cell membrane (outer covering of cell )
Question: 836
How does nutrition occur in humans ?
Answer: 836
Nutrition in humans comprises of five phases name ingestion , digestion , absorption , assimilation and defecation