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What is contribution of Abul Usman Aljahiz?
In 1700 s Abu Usman Aljahiz described characteristics of 350 species of animals in his book. He wrote a lot about life of ants.
What are the aims of classifications?
To determine similarities and difference among organisms so that they can be studied easily To find evolutionary relationship among organisms.
On what factors biodiversity depend?
Bio diversity of an ecosystem depends upon climate, altitude, soil, and presence of other species. Example: Diversity is higher in Tropics, but there ae few species at polar regions.
What are the contribution of Whittaker, Margulis and Schwartz in taxonomy?
In 1967, Robert Whittaker introduced the five kingdom classification system . IN 1988 , Margulis ans schwartz modified the five kingdom classification of Whittaker.
Write the characteristics of kingdom Monera?
In includes the prokaryotic organism in which genetic material is not enclosed in nuclear envelope. These are unicellular, some types form chains, clusters or colonies.
What is biodiversity?
The term biodiversity means diversity within a species and among species. It is the measure of variety of organisms in different ecosystems.
How are taxonomy and systematics related?
Taxonomy: The branch of biology which deals with classification is called taxonomy. Systematics: The branch which deals with classification and also traces the evolutionary history of organisms is systematics.
What is the basic unit of classification ? Define it
A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed freely among them and produce fertile offspring but are re productively isolated form all other such group in nature
Who introduced five kingdom system?
In 1967 Robert Whittaker introduced five kingdom system of classification including Monera Protista. Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, On the basis of level of cellular organization and principal modes of nutrition.
How many types of protists?
there are three types of protests. PLANT LIKE PROTISTS: Algae are unicellular, colonial simple multicellular. They resemble plant cell with cell wall and chloroplast, but don't have multicellular sex organs. Animals like protists: Protozoans animal like protist whose cell lack cell wall and chlorophyll . Fungi Like: they resemble fungi.
Define biodiversity hot spot.
A biodiversity hotspot is a region of high level of established species.
All organism are divided into 5 major groups each of which is called kingdom each kingdom is divided into phylum Kingdom is largest taxon.
What are Autotrophic Organisms ?
All those organisms which do not depend upon the other organisms for getting their food are autotrophic organisms
The systematic grouping of organisms into categories on the basis of evolutionary or structural relationship between them.
Name the national bird and national animal in Pakistan.
The national bird is Chakor patridge , The national animal is Markhor
What is meant by Classifications?
Classification is based on relationship among the organisms and such relationship is got through similarities in characteristics
Describe aims of classification ?
Aims of classification:to determines similarities and difference among organisms so that they can be studied easilyTo find the evolutionary relationship among organisms
Why we formulate binomial nomenclature?
We formulate binomial nomenclature because common name cause many problems. Difference regions have different name for the same organism . For. e.g. common name of onion in udr is piyaz, but in different regions of Pakistan it is also known as 'ganda' or 'basal' or 'vassal'.In other countries it has other sets of names. In science it is known as with single name as Allium cepa.
Deforestation means cutting down of trees for the conservation of a forest to non-forest land.
What is mean by Fungi-like protists ?
Some protests are like protists fungi
Define Heterophs ?
All those organisms which depends upon the others organisms for getting their their food are autotrops
Explain status of virus.
The viruses are considered on the border line of living and non-living organisms.They have genetic material and can reproduce like living organism. And they form crystals which is characteristic of non-living organisms. So they are not kept in any kingdom.
The branch which deals with the classification and also traces the evolutionary history of organisms is known as systematic
Write distinguished characteristics of kingdom fungi.
It includes eukaryotic multicellular reducers for example Mushrooms . Fungi are heterotrophic organisms that are absorptive on organic material, secrete digestive enzymes and absorbs small organic molecule formed by the digestion of enzymes.
What is meant by acellular ?
The practical that not have cellular organization called acellular.
Different between Flora and Fauna?
Flora:Variety of plants in a particular region is known as its flora variety of plants in tropic and temperature regionsFauna:Variety of animals in a particular region is known as its fauna variety of animals in polar regions
Any change in environment composition is called pollution. It posses further threat to species.
What are Extinct species ?
A species that no longer lives in an ecosystem is said to be extinct in that ecosystem become extinct, the stability of ecosystem is harmed
Define Class ?
A class is a group of related order.
What is basic of five kingdom classification system.
The levels of cellular organization i.e. prokaryotic, unicellular eukaryotic and multicellular eukaryotic The principal modes of nutrition i.e. photosynthesis, absorption, and ingestion. On this basis, organisms are classified into five kingdoms monera,protista, fungi, plantae and animalia
Describe the contribution of carious Linnaeus in classification ?
Carolus Linnaeus divided nature in three kingdoms,animals, plants, mineral. Linnaeus is best know for his introduction of the method still used to formulate the scientific name of every species.
Define binomial nomenclature.
Binomial nomenclature is the method of giving scientific names to living organisms. As the word "binomial" suggests,the scientific name of species consists of two names the first is the genus name and the second one is the name of the species. Common name. Onion Scientific name. Allium cepa
Name any four texa of classification?
Define Order ?
An order is a group of related families
Write the name of national animals of pakistan ?
Markhor is the national animals of pakistan.
Write down two characteristics of sea star.
Its body is star like . It has five arms with central disc. There are presence of tube feet towards ventral side of body.
What are the Autotrophic ?
All those organisms which do not depends upon the other organisms for getting their food are Autotrophic organisms
What is meant by Endangered Specie ?
A Species is called endangered when, it is at risk of extinction in near future form an ecosystem, like Indus dolphin
What is meant by Taxa
The group to which organisms are classified are known as taxonomic categories or taxa figural The taxa form a ladder called Taxonomic hierarchy
Mule is result of unnatural cross.Why?
Un-Natural Cross:two different but closely related species can interbreed un-naturally but they can produce only infertile off join spring through his un-naturally mating offspring
Who and when introduce the five kingdom Classifications System ?
In 1967, Robert Whittaker introduced the five kingdom Classifications system
Write name of two projects for conservation of biodiversity in pakistan?
- Himalayan Jungle Project.
- Northern areas conservation project
Define species ?
A species is a basics unit of classification "A species is a group of organisms which can inter breed freely among them and produce fertile offspring butt are re productively isolated from all other such group in nature
Define Taxonomy ?
The branch of biology which deals with the classification is called Taxonomy.
Write importance of biodiversity?
Biodiversity provides food for humanA significant proportion of drugs are derived directly or indirectly from biological sourcesA wide range of industrial materials e.g building materials,fibers,dyes,resins, gums,Biodiversity plays important role in making and maintaining ecosystem
In which kingdoms Carolus divided the nature
Carolus Linnaeus divided nature into three kingdoms animals plants, mineral Linnaeus is best know for his introduction of the method still used toi formulate the scientific name of every species
Write three characteristics of kingdom Monera ?
- It include prokaryotic organisms
- Monerans are unicellular
- it include two different type of organisms like bacteria and cyano bacteria
Defferentiate between Flora and Fauna
Flora: Variety of Plants in a particular region is known as its Flora Variety of plants in Tropics and temperate regions
Write the name of all kingdom in five kingdom system ?
Define Autotrophs ?
All those organisms which do not depends upon the other organisms for getting their food are autotrops
What is meant by Taxa ?
The group to which organisms are classified are known as taxanomic categories or taxa
Give reson why viruses not infive kingdom system
Viruses are not included in five kingdom system as they are not considered to be livings Viruses are at the border line of living and non living
What is meant by Viroid ?
Viroid are acellular like virus. Viroids consists of only RNA viroids cause diseases in plants
Define kingdom Monera ?
kingdom Monera includes prokaryotic organisms i,e, they are made up of prokaryotic cells
Write down the scientific name of Human being and Pea Plant
Scientific name of Human being is Homo sapiensScientific name of pea plant is Pilum sativum
write two name of protists?
- Plant-like protists
- Animals like protists
What is difference between mode of nutrition of fungi and animals ?
Nutrition of Fungi:Fungi are multicelluar heterotrops and have absorptive of nutritionmostly fungi are decomposers
On which four factor the diversity of organisms in a region depends upon ?
- Presence of other species
Write down scientific names of Onion and Houses Crow
Onion Allium cepaHouse crow Corus splendens
What is meant by three kingdom classification ?
In 1866 Ernst Hackel Solved by the first objection two kingdom classification and proposed a third kingdom protista
Write down the scientific name of human being and pea plant :
Scientific name of Human being is homo sapiens.Scientific name of pea plant is pisum sativum
Define Kingdom Monera and give example
Kingdom moneran includes prokaryotic organisms i.e they are made up of prokaryotic cells Monerans are unicellular although some types form chains clusters or colonies of cells Most are heterotrophic but some perform photosynthesis because they have chlorophyll in their cytoplasm Within this kingdoms there are two different kinds of organisms i.e bacteria and cyanobacteria
Why we are formulate binomial nomenclature ?
We formulate binomials nomenclature because in biological research, common name many problem. Difference regions have different name of same organisms. for example; common name of onion is Urdu "piyaz"
What is the bases of classification
Classification is based on relationship among the organisms and such relationship is got through similarities in characteristics These similarties suggest that all organisms are related to one another at some point in their evolutionary histories However some organisms are more closely related than other For example sparrows are more closely related to pigeons than to insects It means that these two former have common evolutionary histories When biologists classify organisms into groups histories When biologists classify organisms into groups and subgroups the similarities are seen in external and internal structure and states of development
Difference between prions and viroids?
Prions are composed of protein only and viroids are composed of circular RNA only
Write down two reasons of los of Biodiversity
Deforestation, Over hunting
Define Living Characteristics ?
- Viruses has DNA or RNA enveloped in a protein coat like living organisms
- virus only reproduce within living cell were they also cause different diseases
How do we write scientific name ?
Scientific name are usually printed in italic, such as Homo sapiens.When hand written they are underline like Homo sapiens
Write two effect of Deforestation?
- Deforestation affect the amount of water in soil and mositure in atmosphere.
- Deforestation also contributes to decreased transpiration, which lessens cloud formation.
How to we write scientific name
Scientific names are usually printed in italics such as homo sapiens When handwritten they are underlined like homo sapiens
What are effect of human being on biodiversity ?
By rapid increase in human population, we are imposing serious threats to the survival of biodiversity. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to biodiversity on earth today
Write the name of two kingdom in two kingdom system ?
Kingdom animaliaKingdom plantae
What is meant by two Kingdom Classificationi
This is the oldest system and classifies all organisms into two kingdoms Plantae and Animalia According to it all organisms that can prepare food from simple inorganic and are included in kingdom plantae On the other hand the are included in kingdom plantae On the other hand the organisms that cannot synthesize their food and depend on autotrophs or others are heterotrophs and are included on autotrophs or others are hetetrophs and are included in kingdom animalia According to this system bacteria fungi and algae were included in kingdom plantae
What is meant by Deforestation ?
Deforestation means cutting down of trees for the conversion of a forest to non-forest land
What is the state of viruses in five kingdom system ?
Virus are not included in five kingdom system as they are not considered to be living.Virus are at the border line of living and non living
What is meant by Taxonomic Hierarchy
The arrangement of taxon in taxonomy is termed as Taxonomic HierarchyAll organisms hae been divide into Five Kingdoms That's why the biggest taxon is Kingdom That why the biggest taxon is kingdomOn the basic of similarities Each kingdom is further divided into smaller taxaKingdom, Phylum. Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species4
Name any two Endangered species in Pakistan?
- Indus Dolphin
- Macro polo sheep
What is meant by Deforestation
Deforestation means cutting down of trees for the conversion of a forest land
What is base of five kingdom system ?
In 1967, Robert Whittaker Introduced the five kingdom classification system
- The leaves of cellular organization i,e, prokaryotic,unicellular
- The principal of mode of nutrition i,e, photosynthesis
Species is the basic unit of classification A species is a group of organisms which can inter breed freely among them and produce fertile offspring but are reproductively isolated from all other such groups in nature
What is meant by three kingdom classification
In1866 Ernst Hackle solved the first objection of two kingdom classification and proposed a third kingdom Protista to accommodate euglena like organisms He also included bacteria in kingdom Protista In this system fungi were still included in kingdom plantae
Write name of any two decomposers ?
Describe aims of classifications
Aims of Classification: The main aims of classification areTo determine similarities and differences among organisms so that they can be studied easilyTo find the evolutionary relationship among organisms
Write a short not about Houbara bustard ?
Houbara bustard:This bird flies to pakistan in winter season from former Soviet territory and settles in cholistan and Thar deserts .
What is meant by acellular
The particles that not have cellular organization called acellular Like viruses are not considered as organisms and thus are not include in the five kingdom classification system Prions and viroids are also acellular particles
Write biological name of Human and Onion ?
What are Autotrophic or ganisms
Autotrophic Organisms: All those organisms which do not depends upon others organisms for getting their food are autotrophic organisms
Write down scientific name of onion and house Crow?
House crow:Corvus splendens
Define non living characteristics?
- Virus consider to be non living due to crystal formation
- Viruses are a cellular i,e, They have no cellular organization
How fungi differ from other plants
Kindom fungi includes eukaryotic multicellular heterotrophsThey are absorptive in their nutritional mode e.g mushroomsMost fungi are decomposers They live on organic matter secrete digestive enzymes and absorb small organic molecules formed by the digestion by enzymes
Write down the name of two organization who conservate the biodiversity ?
- International union for the conservation of nature and Nature recourse
- World wildlife Fund-Pakistan
Define binomial Nomenclature ?
Binomial Nomenclature is the modify of giving scientific name to living organisms. As the world binomial suggested the scientific name of a species consists of two name: First is the genus name and the second one is the name species
What is difference between Extinct Species Endangered Species ?
Extinct Species:In an ecosystem, a Species is called Extinct when there is no doubt that last individual of that species has died in that ecosystem.
Endangered Species:A species is called Endangered when it is at a risk of extinction in near future .
Write the names of Two Kingdom in Two kingdoms System
The names of Two Kingdom in Two Kingdoms system are Kingdom Animalia The organisms that cannot synthesize their food and depend on autotrophs or others heterotrophs are included in kingdom Animalia
Write down two reason of Los of biodiversity?
- Over hunting
Write the scientific name of onion and pea ?
Wrie the scientific name of onion and pea
Onion Allium capePea Pilum sativum
What is meant by Soil erosion ?
Heavy rainfall washes soil into rivers essential nutrients are washed out of soil and it is called soil errosion
Write name of any two decomposers
What is difference between extinct and endangered species
Extinct Species: In an ecosystem, a species is called extinct when there is no doubt that the last individual of that species has died in that ecosystem
What are the effect of over hunting on animals population ?
Over-hunting has been a significant cause of the extinction of hundreds of species and the endangerment of many more spices.
What is difference between Taxonomy and systematics
Taxonomy: The branch of biology which deals with classification is called taxonomy
Write importance of Biodiversity
Importance of Biodiversity: Biodiversity provides food for humansA significant proportion of drugs are deived directly or indirectly from biological sourcesA wide range of industrial materials e.g. building materials, fibres, dyes, resins, gums adhessives, rubber and oil are derived directly from plantsBiodiversity plays important role in making and maintaining ecosysemsIt plays a vital role in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supplyBiodiversity is directly involved in recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils
Write the name of national animal of Pakistan
Markhor is the national animal of Pakistan
How many types of Protists
Protists are of three types: Algae are unicellular colonial or simple multicellular They resemble plant cells with cell walls and charophyte in chloroplasts Chlamydomonas volox and ulva are examples of simple multi join celluler algae
Name any four taxa of classification
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order
Differentiate between Class and Order
Class: A class is a group of related order
Write down the names of two organizations who conservator the biodiversity
There are two names of organizations for conservation of biodiversityInternational Union for the Conservation of nature and Natural ResourceWorld Wildlife Fund Pakistan
What are Extinct Species
Extinct Species A species that no longer lives in an ecosystem is said to be extinct in that ecosystem When species of an ecosystem become extinct the stability of ecosystem is harmed
What is the basic unit of Classification
A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed freely among them and produce fertile offspring but are reproductively isolated from all other such group in nature Basic unit or category of classification is species
Give simple classification of Pea
What is meant by Endangered Species
A species is called endangered when it is at risk of extinction in near future from an ecosystem like Indus dolphin Marco polo sheep, Hobart Bustard
What do you know about Indus Dophin
According to WWF-P ONLY 600 animals of the species of Indus dolphin are left today in the Indus River The population of this species declined due to water pollution poaching and destruction of habitat Now steps are taken by WWF-P for its conservation
What is meant biodiversity
Define Biodiversity: The term biodiversity has been derived from bio and diversity Diversity means variety within a species and among species Biodiversity is a measure of the variety of organisms present in different ecosystems
Who and when introduced the Five kingdom classification System
In 1967, Robert Whittaker introduced the five kingdom classification system
Write name of two projects for conservation of biodiversity Pakistan
Himalayan Jungle projectNorthern area conservation project
What is difference between mode of nutrition of Fungi and animals
Nutrition in Fungi: Fungi are Multicellular heterotrophs and have absorptive mode of nutritionMostly FUNGI ARE DECOMPOSERS
What are differences between Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
Autotrophs All those organisms which do not depends upon other organisms for getting their food are autotrophs
Mule is result of unnatural cross
Un-natural Cross Two different but closely related species can interbreed un-naturally but they can produce only infertile off join spring through this un-natural mating offspring
What is base of Five Kingdom System
In 1967, Robert Whittaker introduced the fie Kingdom classification system This system is based on The levels of cellular organization i.e prokaryotic unicellular eukaryotic and multicellular eukaryoticThe principal modes of nutrition i.e. photosynthesis absorption and ingestion
Write down simple classification of Human
What is meant by Viroid
Viroid's are acellular like virus Viroid's consist of only RNA Viroid's cause diseases in plants Viroid's like viruses does not include in Five kingdoms classification system
Discuss Viruses are livings or non living
Non living Characteristics: Virus is considered to be non living due to crystal formationViruses are acellular i.e they have no cellular organization
Fungi like protest
Some protests are like protists fungi
Define Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature is the method of giving scientific names to living organisms As the word binomial suggests the scientific name of a species consists of two names the first is genus name and the second one is the name of species Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus first introduced this system
Write the name of all Kingdoms in five Kingdom system
Moneran, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
On which four factors the diversity of organisms in a region depends upon
Diversity of organisms depends upon following factorsTemperature, Altitude, Geography, Presence of other species
Write three characteristics of Kingdom Monera
It includes prokaryotic organismsMoerans are unicllularIt include two different tape of organisms like bacteria and cyanic bacteria
Write Biological name of Human and Onion
Human Homo sapiensOnion Allium cepa
Name any two Endangered species in Pakistan
Indus Dolphin, Marco polo sheep
What is meant by Soil erosion
Heavy rainfall washes soil into rivers essential nutrients are washed out of soul and it is called soil erosion
Differential between prions and viroids
Prions are composed of protein only and viroid' are composed of circular RNA only
Why we formulate binomial nomenclature
We formulate binomial nomenclature because in biological research common names cause name cause many problems Different regions have different names for the same organism For example common name of onion in Urdu is Piyaz but in different regions of Pakistan it is also known as gander or basal or vassal In other countries It has other sets of names In science it has only one name Allium cape
What are effects of human being on Biodiversity
By rapid increase in human population we are imposing series threats to the survival of biodiversity Habitat loss is the greatest threat to biodiversity on Earth today
What are the effects of over hunting on animals
Over hunting has been a significant cause of the extinction of hundreds of species and the endangerment of many more species
Write a short note about Houbaa bustard
Houbara bustard: This bird flies to Pakistan in winter season from former Soviet territory and settles in Cholis tan and Thar deserts The decline in its population is due to hunting by foreigners and destruction of its habitats
Write two effects of deforestation
Deforestation affects the amount of water in soil and moisture in atmosphere As result soil erosion and floods like problems are produced