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What is plastic industry.
Hydrocarbons are used as raw materials for the preparation of a large variety of synthetic polymers Called plastics like polythene, polyester. These can be given any shape when soft and on hardening make a durable article to be sued in electric and sewages items and a lot of other household items in common life.
Give few uses of ethene.
Ethene is used for artificial ripening of fruits Use as a general anaesthetic for manufacture of polythene
Hydrocarbons are those compounds which are made up of only carbon and hydrogen elements.
What is Synthetic fibre industry.
Hydrocarbons are used to prepare synthetic fibres like nylon. rayon polyesters these fibres have better qualities like greater strength good clasticity, resistance to wear and tear.
Different between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Saturated hydrocarbon:Thy hydrocarbons in which all four valences electrons of carbon atoms are fully satisfied by single bonds with other carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms are called saturated hydrocarbons.
What is petrochemical industry.
The organic compounds prepared from hydrocarbons are called petrochemicals. some of the important petrochemicals are methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol,formic acid, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene, butadiene, benzene, toluene,etc.
What is the difference between a straight and a branched chain hydrocarbons ?
Straight hydrocarbons : Straight chain compound are those in which carbon atoms are linked with each other through double and triple bonds forming a straight chain
Straight chain (n-butane )
Physical properties of alkanes.
Physicsl state: Alkanes form a homologous series of compounds and first four members of the sereis are gases. the alkanes consisting of C3 to C10 are liquid while the higher members are solids.
What do you mean by halogenations?
A reaction in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a saturated compounds are replaced with halogen atom is called halogenations.
Why are the alkanes used as fuel ?
Alkanes burn in the presence of excess of air or oxygen to produce a lot of heat , carbon dioxide and water . This reaction takes place in automobile combustion engines , domestic heaters and cooking appliances . It is highly exothermic reaction and because of it alkanes are used as fuel
CH4 + 2O2→ CO2 +2H2O +heat
Give the reduction of alkyl halide.
Reduction means addition of nascent hydrogen. It is a replacement of a halogen atom with hydrogen atom in the presence of Zn metal and HCl
What is Rubber industry?
Hydrocarbons are used to prepare synthetic rubber , such as acetylene is used to prepare butadiene rubber used for making footwear, tyres and toys. similarly, a good quality rubber neoprene is prepared from chloroprene.
What is the simplest alkane ?
Methane is the simplest alkane CH4
What do you mean by halogenation ? Give the reaction of methane with chlorine in bright sunlight .
Halogenation in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a saturated compound are replaced with halogen atom is called halogenation reaction
CH4 + 2CL2 → C+4HCL
What is Synthetic detergents.
Long chain hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum are used to make synthetic detergents and washing powders. These detergents are sodium salts of alkyl hydrogen sulphate. These detergents have better and stronger cleaning properties than that of sofaps. They can be used even in hard water.
Why alkenes are known as olefins?
Alkenes are known as olefins because first members of alkenes form oily products when react with halogens. Olefins means oil forming.
Why are hydrocarbons considered as parent organic compounds ?
Hydrocarbons are regarded as the parent organic compounds since other organic compounds are considered to be derived from them by the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups of atoms
Why are hydrocarbons soluble in organic solvents ?
Hydrocarbon are soluble in organic solvents because both of them are non polar covalent compounds the principle of solubility is like dissolve like
Give a few uses of ethane .
Ethane is used
1: for a artificial ripening of fruits
2: as a general anaesthetic
3: for manufacture of polythene : Polythene is a plastic material used in packaging , toys , bags etc ethyl alcohol , ethylene, glycol, diethyl ether etc ; ethylene oxide is used as a fumigant , ethylene glycol is used as an anti-freeze , diethyl ether and ethyl alcohol are used as solvents and
4: for making poisonous mustard gas which is used in chemical warfar
Why alkanes are called paraffins?
Inalkanes al the bonds of carbon atoms are single that means valences electrons of carbon atoms are saturated.There fore they are least reactive that is the reason, alkanes are called parafins.
Give a test used to identify unsaturation of an organic compound
Dissolve about 0.2 if organic compound in water in a test tube .add 2-3 drops of alkanes KMnO4solution in it shake the disappearance of pink color indicates the presence of unsaturation in the organic compound
State one important use of each .
Ethene : Ethene is used for artificial ripening of fruits
Acetylene : Acetylene is used to prepare other chemicals , such as alcohols , actaldehyde and acids
Why the burning of alkanes require sufficient supply of oxygen ?
Alkanes burn in the presence of excess of air or oxygen to produce a lit of heat , carbon dioxide and water . This reaction takes place in automobile combustion engines , domestic heaters and cooking appliances . It is highly exothermic reaction and because of it alkanes are used as fuel
CH4 +2O2→ CO2 +2H2O +heat
Justify the alkane give substitution reaction
A reaction in which one or more hydrogen atoms of a saturated compound are replaced with some other atoms (like halogen) is called a substitution reaction . Because alkanes has single bonds not double bonds so it do not add more atoms , it give substitution reaction
Define saturated hydrocarbons with examples .
The hydrocarbons in which al the four valencies of carbon atoms are fully satisfied (saturated) by single bonds with other carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms are called saturated hydrocarbons . Saturated hydrocarbons are also called alkanes . Thus , an alkane is a hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected by only single covalent bond (there are no double or triple covalent bonds in alkanes
Methane (CH4) , Ethane (C2H6 ) , propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) are all saturated hydrocarbons because they contain only carbon-carbon single bonds
Give some uses of alkynes .
1: It is also used for artificial ripening of fruits
Give the physical properties of alkanes .
Solubility : They are non-polar , therefore , they are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
Density : The density of alkanes increases gradually with the increase of molecular size
Why the alkynes are called acetylenes
Alkynes are also called acetylenes because of the name of the first member of the series id acetylene
How can you identify ethene from ethene ?
We identify ethene from ethene by bromine water test , ethane does not give bromine water test while ethane decolourized the bromine water because ethene is saturated and ethane is unsaturated hydrocarbon
Why colour of bromine water discharge on addition of ethane in it ?
When bromine water (a solution of bromine in water having red-brown color ) is added to ethane in an inert solvent like carbon tetrachloride , its color is discharges at once
Why are alkenes reactive ?
Alkenes are reactive compounds because the electrons of the double bond are easily available for reaction
Identify propane from propane with a test?
Propane and propane can be identified by bromide water test . propane does not give bromine water test because it is saturated hydrocarbons . While propene decolorized the bromine water because propane is unsaturated hydrocarbon having double bond
Why hydrocarbon used as a fuel
The main constituent of fuels (coal , petroleum and natural gas ) are hydrocarbons . When hydrocarbons are burnt in air the reaction is called combustion . It is highly exothermic reaction , i-e it produces a lot of heatThe basic combustion reaction isCH4 + 2O2? CO2 + 2H2O + heat