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Tell two reasons of importance of water.
firstly. It is essential and major component of each and every living cell secondly. It provides an environment for animals and plants that live to water.
Give three effects of water pollution?
a. It is damaging aquatic life, thus breaking a link of food chain. b. It reduces the aesthetic quality of lakes and rivers. 3. It is unfit for cleaning or washing purpose.
Name preventive methods of water borne diseases.
Provision of safe water. Disposal of sewage Control of toxic chemicals.
What are the names of types of the hard water.
There are two types of water hardness. Temporary hardness Permanent hardness.
How pesticides cause water pollution?
Intensive cultivation of crops causes these chemicals from fertilizers to seep into the groundwater commonly called leaching process. The high nitrate contents in groundwater in mainly because of irrigation run off from agricultural field.
What temporary hardness use.
Temporary hardness by boiling , by clark's method
What is function of fertilizers?
Fertilizers are used to make up the deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus, etc, of the soil because of intensive cultivation of crops in the recent years.
Define blister copper
The molten matte is shifted from converter to sand moulds and is allowed to cool . The dissolved gasses escape out forming blister on the surface of the slod copper . It is called blister copper . It is 98% pure copper
If you add a lump of cesium to water in a glass tough,what will happen?
Trhe reaction is so vigorous that the tough will shelter into small pieces.
What is capillary action?
Capillary action is the process by which water rises up from the roots of plants to leaves.This process is vital for the survival of the land plants.
Tell some use of water in our daily life?
Uses of water in our daily life are for drinking, cooking, washing purposes etc.
ICI stand for what ?
Imperial chemical industries
Why use of detergents is increasing day by day?
Use of detergents is increasing day by day for cleaning purposes in houses and industries. It is because, detergents have strong cleaning action than that of soap even in hard water.
What permanent hardness removal.
By using washing soda Using sodium zeolite.
Give two advantages of solvay's process
1: Carbon dioxide and ammonia are recovered and reused
2: Sodium carbonate of very high purity is obtained
Define water borne diseases.
Diseases that spread because of drinking polluted water or eating food prepared with polluted water are called water borne infectious diseases.
Why are pesticides used?
Pesticides are used either directly to kill or control the growth of pests. Pests may be weeds,herbe insects, fungi, viruses, etc.They all damage crops and transmit diseases both to human beings and animals.
Differentiate between soft and hard water.
Soft water: Soft water is that which produces good lather with soap
What are the effects of temporary hardness in water?
1. Hard water consumes large amount of soap in washing purposes. 2. Drinking hard water causes stomach disorders. 3.Hard water is unfit for use in steam engines. boilers and turbines because insoluble calcium and magnesium salts deposit inside.They are called scales. they are bad conductors of heat and hence more fuel is used insoluble calcium and magnesium sulphates not only reduce the efficiency of the engine but also cause the boiler toburst.
Give names of raw material and used in solvay's process
The raw material are
1: Brine (NaCl)
2: Limestone (CaCO3)
3: Ammonia gas (NH3)
Define concentration process used in metallurgy of copper
The process of removal of gangue from the ore is technically known as concentration and the purified ore is called the concentrate . Concentration of the crushed ore is carried out by the following methods
1: Gravity separation
2: Froth flotation process
3: Electromagnetic separation
Define principle of solvay's process
Principle of solvay's process lies in low solubility of sodium bicarbonate at low temperature i-e 15℃ when CO2is passed through ab ammonical solution of NaCl called brine only NaHCO3precipitate
What is hepatitis?
It is liver inflammation commonly caused by one of five viruses called hepatitis A,BC,C, and E. Hepatitis A and E can be transmitted by contaminated water.
Name fraction of petroleum
1: Petroleum gas
2: Petroleum ether
4: Kerosene oil
5: Diesel oil
6: Fuel oil
Which bacteria causes the cholera?
Cholera is an acute infection caused by the bacteria "Vibrio cholera"., which may be found in water contaminated by human faces, Cholera causes severs diarrhea and can be fatal.
Difference between biodegradable and non -biodegradable substances?
Biodegradable: the material which are decomposed by micro organism like bacteria and fungi Example: Dead plants and animals.
Give names of raw material used in Urea manufacturing ?
1: Ammonia (NH3)
2: Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Cuprous sulphide and ferrous sulphide form a mixture Cu2S . FeS called matte
Petroleum is a natural product found under the Earth's crust trapped in rocks . Petroleum means rock oil . It is a complex mixture of several gaseous , liquid and solid hydrocarbons having water salts and earth particles with it . It is lighter than water and is insoluble in it
Define anode mud
In the process of refining of metal the impurities like gold and silver settle down at the bottom of electrolyte tank called anode mud
Define principle of froth flotation
Froth flotation is based on the wetting characteristics of the ore and gangue particles with oil and water respectively
Give use of kerosene oil
Used as domestic fuel , a special grade of it is used as jet fuel
Give use of fuel oil
It is used in ships and industries to heat boilers and furnaces
Name two ores of copper
Copper glance Cu2S
Why a small amount ok coke is required in the smelting process ?How is slag formed during smelting
It is highly exothermic process , therefore , a small amount ok coke is required in the process . In the process , first ferrous sulphide oxidize to form ferrous oxide which reacts with sand to form iron silicate slag (FeSiO3) . It being lighter rise to the top and is removed from the upper hole
Define smelting .
It is further heating of roasted ore with sand flux and coke in the presence of excess of air
Fraction of residual oil
Explain process of electro refining ?
Refining the impure metal by electrolysis is the most widely used process of refining metals . Example , electrolytic refining of copper is carried out in an electrolytic tank having copper sulphate solution in it . . Two electrodes : one of impure copper metal that acts as anode and the other of pure copper metal that acts as cathode are suspended in the electrolytic solution
On passing the electric current through the solution, anode (impure coper ) dissolves to provide Cu2+ ions to the solution . These CU2+ions are discharged by gaining of electrons from the cathode . Thereby copper atoms deposit on the cathode , making it thick block of pure copper metal . The impurities like gold and silver settle down as anode mud
The earthly and other impurities associated with minerals are called gangue
Give use of petroleum ether
Used as laboratory solvent and for dry cleaning purpose
Give the reaction of formation of ammonia in the process ?
Ammonia is recovered in this tower from ammonium chloride solution produced in the carbonated tower and calcium hydroxide formed in lime kiln
Petroleum means rock oil . It is a complex mixture of several gaseous , liquid and solid hydrocarbons having water , salts and earth particles with it
Refining process is the separation of crude oil mixture into various useful fractions
What role play technology in the production of common chemicals .
Technology is considered a consequences of science and engineering . Common chemicals such as acids alkalies , salts ,soaps , detergents etc are being produced on commercial scale by chemists or chemical engineers since centuries . Technology began to influence human efforts to produce common chemicals since people began using different tools and machineries . Now it is because of use of technology that needs of people are being fulfilled . Use of technology has increased the production with improved quality of products
What happens when ammonium carbonate is heated with steam ?
When ammonium carbonate is evaporated with the help of steam , it dehydrates to form urea
Describe preparation of ammonia by (Haber's Process) ?
Ammonia is prepared by the Haber's process . One volume of nitrogen (from air) and three volumes of hydrogen (obtained by passing methane and steam over heated nickel ) is passed over iron catalyst at 450℃ and 200 atm pressure
How petroleum is extracted ?
Petroleum is extracted by drilling holes into earth's crust where the oil is formed
State urea formation
When ammonium carbonate is evaporated with the help of steam . It dehydrates to form urea
Give the advantages of Solvay's process
1: It is a cheap process as raw materials are available at very low prices
2: Carbon dioxide and ammonia are recovered and reused
3: Process is pollution free, because the only waste is calcium chloride solution
4: Sodium carbonate of very high purity is obtained
5: Consumption of fuel is very less since no solution is to be evaporated
Describe principle of fractional distillation
The principle of fractional distillation is based upon a separation of substances depending upon the boiling point
How CO2prepared in the Solvay's process ?
CO2 is prepared by heating limestone in a lime kiln . Then it is carried to carbonating tower
What is difference between slag and matte ?
Slag mixture of metals silicate and phosphates while cuprous while cuprous sulphide and ferrous sulphide form a mixture (Cu2S.FeS) .This molten mixture is called matte
What is the percentage of nitrogen in urea ?
It consists of 46.6% nitrogen
Name the various metallurgical operations
1: Concentration of the ore
2: Extraction of the metal and
3: Refining of the metal
How is the roasting carried out ?
It is a process of heating the concentrated ore to a high temperature in excess of air .
Example : copper pyrite (CuFeS2) is strongly heated in excess of air to covert it into a mixture of cuprous sulphide and ferrous sulphide (Cu2S+FeS) .Whle impurities react with oxygen to form 2 volatile oxides
In which field analytical chemist work ?
Analytical chemists work in almost all fields of industry . They identify the materials , measures their quantities and control the quality of the products . They evaluate the efficiency and devise techniques to enhance the production
What are the advantages of solvay's process ?
1: It is a cheap process as raw material are available at very low prices
2: Carbon dioxide and ammonia are recovered and reused
3: Process is pollution free , because the only waste is calcium chloride solution
4: Sodium carbonate of very high purity is obtained
How are slag and matte removed from the blast furnace ?
Cuprous sulphide also oxidize to form cuprous oxide which reacts with unreacted ferrous sulphide to form ferrous oxide and cuprous sulphide . In this way , cuprous sulphide and ferrous sulphide form a mixture (Cu2S.FeS) . This molten mixture is called matte . It is withdrawn from the lower hole . It contains about 45% of copper . Slag FeSiO3is light water and remove from upper hole
Why is lime added in the smelting process ?
Lime is used to separate the gangue in the form of slag
In which field physical chemist work ?
Physical chemists have working opportunities in energy transformation industries . They develop new an better energy sources . They explore renewable energy fields
Which element required by plants ?
Crops needs phosphors and nitrogen to grow well . Although there is 78% nitrogen in air yet it can't be assimilated directly by plants . Therefore fertilizer are used to provide these essential elements to soil and ultimately plants
What role is played by pine oil in the forth floatation process ?
Oil coated or partials begins lighter come to the surface in the form of forth that can be skimmed
Mention the chemical reactions for the formation of metallic copper in the bessemerization process
2Cu2S(I) + 3O2 → 2Cu2O(I) + 2SO2(g)↑
2Cu2O(I) + Cu2S(I)→ 6Cu(l) + SO2(g) ↑
In which field organic chemist work ?
Organic chemists have career in pharmaceutical , petroleum , petrochemicals , cosmetics , polymer and plastic industries
What is residual oil and given the names of its fractions ?
The residual oil , which does not vapourize is collected and heat above 400° C for further fractional distillation . The four fractions of residual oil are lubricants ,paraffin wax , asphalt and petroleum coke
What is the principle of functional distillation ?
Refining is the process of separation of crude oil mixture into various useful products (functions ) . It is carried out by a process called fractional distillation . The principle of fractional distillation is based upon separation depending upon their boiling points
How is ammonia prepared for the synthesis of urea ?
Ammonia is prepared by the Haber's process . One volume of nitrogen (from air ) and three volumes of hydrogen (obtained by passing methane and steam over heated nickel catalyst ) is passed over iron catalyst at 450° C AND 200 atm pressure
Write down the the names of four fractions obtained by the fractional distillation of residual oil ?
2: Paraffin wax
How NaHCO3(S) is converted intoNa2CO3?
Sodium bicarbonate is heated to get sodium carbonateNaHCO3(S) → Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) +H2O(g)
What happen when ammonical brine id carbonated ?
Ammonical brine is fed into carbonating tower and carbon dioxide is passed through it . Following reactions takes place in the carbonating tower
In which field inorganic chemist work ?
Inorganic chemist work in metallurgical industries , manufacturing industries like textile , cement sugar and chemicals , manufacturing plants like fertilizer , acids and caustic soda
Describe the difference between diesel oil and fuel oil
Diesel oil : Fuel for buses , trucks railway engines , tube well engineers , well engines and other heavy vehicles
Give a use of kerosene oil
Used a domestic fuel , a special grade of it is used as jet fuel
Which petroleum fraction is used in dry cleaning ?
Petroleum ether and gasoline or petrol is used in dry cleaning
Define gravity separation method
Gravity separation:gravity separation is based on the differences of metallic ore and the gangue particles