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Dear students, prepare for biology class 9th chapter 7 long questions. These important long questions are carefully added to get you best preparation for your 9th class biology ch. 7 exams.
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Question: 1
How would define bioenergetics while relating it to the oxidation-reduction reactions in the living systems? (b)How electrons add as a energy source?
Answer: 1
1-20
Question: 2
Which phenomenon are involved in the intake of CO, and water by plants?
Answer: 2
2-20
Ans. (a) Photosynthesis: Definition: The process by which plants and some other autotrophic organisms prepare their food (glucose) in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll, with oxygen as a by-product is called photosynthesis. Importance: Photosynthesis is an anabolic process and is an important component of bioenergetics in living systems. It is the most important bio-chemical pathway and nearly all life depends on it. Occurrence: Photosynthesis occurs in plants, protists (algae) and some autotrophic bacteria. Chemical Equations: The chemical equation representing the process of photosynthesis is as follows; ll hy 6CO2 + 12H20 + Light energy Chlorophyll vv An 2 + 6H20 Ans. (b) Intake of water and CO2 for Photosynthesis: Water and CO2 are the raw materials of photosynthesis. The plants have mechanisms for the intake and transport of these materials. Intake of water Water present in soil is absorbed by roots and root hairs through osmosis. This water is eventually transported to leaves through xylem vessels. (After the entry of water in the inner cells of the root, it reaches xylem vessels). (ii) Intake of CO2: The air that enters the leaf through tiny pores (stomata) reaches into the air spaces present around mesophyll cells. This air carries CO2 which gets absorbed in the thin layer of water surrounding the mesophyll cells. From here, the CO2 diffuses into the mesophyll cells.
Question: 3
Describe the mechanisim of photosynthesis in detail.
Answer: 3
3-20
Question: 4
Define respiration?Describe its types and importance.
Answer: 4
4-20
Question: 5
Describe the machanism of respiration.
Answer: 5
5-20
Ans. Mechanism of respiration The process of respiration involves complex series of reactions. For the study of all the reactions of glucose oxidation, we will. Study the mechanism .of aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration is a continuous process but we can divide into three main stages. (i) Glycolysis (ii) Krebs cycle (iii)Electron Transport chain (i) Glycolysis Location: Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm and oxygen is not involved at this stage so it occurs both in aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Definition: The process in which glucose molecule is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acids (3c). (ii) Krebs’s cycle Discovery a British biochemist, Sir Hans Krebs discovered this series of reactions that is why it is called the Krebs cycle • Definition: In Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid molecules are completely oxidized along with the formation of ATP, NADH and FADH2. Before entering in Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid is changed into a 2- carbon compound called acetyl COA. (iii)Electron Transport chain It is the final step of cellular respiration. It is the transfer of electron in an electron transport chain. In this step, i. These electrons are ‘taken up by a series of electron carriers. ii. When electrons move, through the series of electron carriers they lose energy, which is used to synthesize ATP. iii. At the end of chain, electrons and hydrogen ions combine with molecular oxygen and form water. iv. NADH and FADH2 release electrons and hydrogen ions.
Question: 6
Describe Energy Budget of respiration.
Answer: 6
6-20
Question: 7
Q no 7 (A) Define Bioenergetics and explain <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862385860586819682717">oxidation reduction</gwmw> in detail.
Answer: 7
7-20
<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862387310080533435739">Bioenergetics</gwmw>:<div> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862388096405054148042">Bioenergetics</gwmw> is the study of energy relationships and energy transformation in living <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862387755008236063960">anyonusms</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862388096407609697030">. </gwmw>Food <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862399077717253613641">contain</gwmw> potential energy in the bonds when these bonds are broken down a large amount of kinetic energy is usually released same of this energy is stored in the form of potential energy in the bonds of ATP molecules while the rest escapes as heat. The potential energy stored in ATP is again transformed into kinetic energy to carry out life activities.</div><div>Oxidation-Reduction Reaction</div><div> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862410312331917787244">various life process</gwmw> in organisms <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862410312336028574728">involve</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862410312337732736131">constant flow</gwmw> of energy<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862410312336964314532">.</gwmw>This energy flows comprises the acquisition, transformation and use of energy, ofvariation life processes like growth, <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862410312335047977042">movement reproduction</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862408562899491078792">etc</gwmw>, for life process oxidation-reduction reaction <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862410312336632185766">are</gwmw> the direct atom source of energy. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862411117754160003597">Redox</gwmw>reaction <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862411117751603125906">involve</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862411117753005843804">exvhange</gwmw> of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862410913384945279094">electrones</gwmw>between atoms. The loss of electrons is called oxidation while the gain of electrons is called reduction <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862411625425317140567">elelctrons</gwmw> can be <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862411736585882257045">energy source</gwmw>. It <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862413688723106256239">depend</gwmw> upon their location and arrangement <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862413688723685261661">in</gwmw> atoms for Example: When they are present it oxygen they make <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862413688720016013188">stable association</gwmw> with oxygen atoms and are not good energy source. But <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862414239814597296799">it</gwmw> electrons are <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862413874903633722644">drogged</gwmw> away from oxygen and attached to some other atoms. In living organisms <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862415747141330789550">redox reductin</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862415747145279667963">involve</gwmw> the loss and gain of hydrogen <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862415747147522718435">atos</gwmw>. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862416572000004769414">we</gwmw> know that a hydrogen <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862416572000243334348">atoms</gwmw> contains are proton and one electron. It means that when a molecule loses a hydrogen <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862417667641624920602">atoms</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862417667649195732482">.</gwmw>It <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862417667643223961067">actualy</gwmw> loses an electron and similarly when a molecule gains hydrogen <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862417667645605092667">atoms</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862417667642226930028"> .</gwmw> It actually gains on electrons.</div><div>Explain <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862418677168690396270">limiting</gwmw> Factor in photosynthesis?</div><div> Any <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862419003957364577248">enviromental</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15862420210706278535994">factor the absence</gwmw> or deficiency of which can decrease the rate of metabolic reaction is called limiting factor for that reaction. Many <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862421575032055698379">factor</gwmw> like light intensity<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862421575039599415134">,</gwmw>temperature<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862421575036592467970">,</gwmw>concentration of carbon dioxide and availability of water act as limiting factor for synthesis</div><div>Effect of light intensity and temperature.</div><div> The <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862424280555001060233">rete</gwmw> of photosynthesis <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862424280550265869296">veiwes</gwmw> with light intensity. It <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862426068134938077674">decrease</gwmw> as light intensity decrease and increase as intensity <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862426068132124056710">decreas</gwmw> and increase as intensity increase<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862426068135198353301">.</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862426068135661099867">However at</gwmw> much higher light intensity<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862426068134983683166">.</gwmw>the rate of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862426068135769014791">photosynthsis</gwmw> becomes <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862426068139750261127">constent</gwmw>.</div><div>The rate of photosynthesis <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862426144053826048071">decrese</gwmw> with decrease in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862426144054444577297">temperatura</gwmw>. It <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862426766260029849065">increase</gwmw> as <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862426766262975061169">tempertura</gwmw> is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862426766260139374294">increase</gwmw> over a limited <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862426766260905118704">randge but</gwmw> if light intensity is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15862426766266234550830">law</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862426766266632085535"> .</gwmw></div><div>Effect of carbon dioxide concentration:</div><div> As <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862427453256786400412">carbon dioxide concentration</gwmw> rises the rate of photosynthesis goes on increasing until limited by <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862427453259898316122">other</gwmw>. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862427601510567334184">factor</gwmw>. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862430097554516245208">increase</gwmw> in carbon dioxide concentration beyond a certain level causes the closure of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862430097556513552428">stomata</gwmw> and it <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862430097558328104183">decrease</gwmw> the rate of photosynthesis.</div>
Question: 8
Q no: 6<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862441812846204700572">(</gwmw>A) What is the role of chlorophyll and light in photosynthesis?
Answer: 8
8-20
Sunlight energy is absorbed by chlorophyll. It is then converted into chemical energy. Which drives the photosynthesis processonly about one present of the light <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15862435991084061262621">failing</gwmw> on the leaf surface is absorbedthe rest is reflected to <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862435991082683504256">transmitted</gwmw> the light rays of different wavelengths are not only differentwavelengths are not only different absorbed by photosynthetic pigments are also different effective in photosynthesis.<div>The blue and red light carries out moresynthesis- photosynthetic pigments are organizedin the form clustercalled <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-anim ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862442428154291225832">photosystem</gwmw>in the lastmembrane of chloroplasts chlorophyll-a is the main photosynthetic pigments other are called accessory pigments and include chlorophyll -b and carotenoids chlorophyllsabsorb mainly blue and red lights. Same wavelength not absorbedby chlorophyll<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862439708358608775058">`a</gwmw>' are very effectively absorbed by accessory pigments and vice- <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862440252197859074782">varse</gwmw>.</div>
Question: 9
Q no 6 (B) Write a <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15862443558537267001081">not</gwmw> on Mechanism of Respiration:
Answer: 9
9-20
The process of respiration involves <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862453960278639164727">complex series</gwmw> of reaction. For the study of all reaction of glucose oxidation. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862445464001966053956">we</gwmw> will go into the mechanism of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862444889307118033368">aerabic</gwmw>respiration<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862445464004587000152">.</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862445464003125684210">Aerabic</gwmw> respiration <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862445464005783325158">is continueus</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862445464007320970676">process but</gwmw> for convenience we can divide it into three main stages<div>1- <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862445570613227439532">glycolysis</gwmw>1- <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862445642868706759053">krevs</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862445741873768390736">cylcle</gwmw> and 3- electron transport chain.</div><div><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862448221715434508802">Glycolysis</gwmw>:</div><div> Occur in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862447120564283056027">aytoplasm</gwmw>and oxygen is not involved in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862447066038914401837">this stages</gwmw>. That is why it <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862447392029072021511">occure</gwmw>in both types of respiration aerobicand anaerobic. In <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862447422329798923761">krebs</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862447467049122718373">cysle</gwmw>, the pyruvic acid molecules are completely oxidized along with the formation of ATP<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862448768612684593646"> ,</gwmw> NADH<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862448768615561227101"> ,</gwmw>FADH<sub>2</sub>. Before entering <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862449704274947493140">in</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862449704275992276513">krebscycle</gwmw>, pyruvicacid is changed into a 2- carbon compound called acetyl-coA.</div><div><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15862450201088323393247">Electro</gwmw> transport chain:</div><div> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862450980367927157391">is</gwmw> the final step of cellular respiration Itis the transfer of electronon an electron transport chain. In this step NADH and FADH<sub>2</sub><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862451492521590153484">release</gwmw> electrons and hydrogenions. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862451887592763427777">these</gwmw> electrons are taken up by a seriesof electron caries they lose energy. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862452490850017564425">which</gwmw> is used by synthesis <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862452490853804114637">Atp</gwmw> at the end of chain electrons and hydrogen ions combine with molecular oxygen and form water</div>
Question: 10
Q no: 7<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862456447886811045789">(</gwmw>A) State how the varying light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Answer: 10
10-20
Effect of light intensity and temperature.<div> The rate of photosynthesis varies with light intensity it <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862457785637866559897">decrease</gwmw> light intensity decrease and increase as intensity increase. However, at much higher light intensity the rate of photosynthesis becomes constant<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862458118086032374255"> .</gwmw></div><div>The rate of photosynthesis decrease with decrease in temperature, it <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862458865242186639991">increase</gwmw> as temperature is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862458865241863853620">increase</gwmw> over a limited range But if light intensity is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15862458865247238350127">law</gwmw>. Increasing the temperature has little on the rate of photosynthesis.</div><div>Effect of Carbon dioxide concentration</div><div> As <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862461846164234701343">carbon dioxideconcentration</gwmw> rises the rate of photosynthesis goes on increase untillimited by another factor increasesin carbon dioxide concentration beyond a certain level causes the closureof <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862460817011137453424">stomata</gwmw>and it decrease the rate of photosynthesis</div>
Question: 11
Q no: 7<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862456447886811045789">(</gwmw>A) State how the varying light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Answer: 11
11-20
Effect of light intensity and temperature.<div> The rate of photosynthesis varies with light intensity it <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862457785637866559897">decrease</gwmw> light intensity decrease and increase as intensity increase. However, at much higher light intensity the rate of photosynthesis becomes constant<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862458118086032374255"> .</gwmw></div><div>The rate of photosynthesis decrease with decrease in temperature, it <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862458865242186639991">increase</gwmw> as temperature is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862458865241863853620">increase</gwmw> over a limited range But if light intensity is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15862458865247238350127">law</gwmw>. Increasing the temperature has little on the rate of photosynthesis.</div><div>Effect of Carbon dioxide concentration</div><div> As <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862461846164234701343">carbon dioxideconcentration</gwmw> rises the rate of photosynthesis goes on increase untillimited by another factor increasesin carbon dioxide concentration beyond a certain level causes the closureof <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862460817011137453424">stomata</gwmw>and it decrease the rate of photosynthesis</div>
Question: 12
Q no: 7 (B) Explain Aerobic and anaerobic respiration in detail.
Answer: 12
12-20
The most common food used by cell to get energy by cellular respiration is glucose. The way glucose oxidized depend on the detail validity of oxygen. The cellular respiration <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862465026771119409544">occuring</gwmw>in the presence of oxygen is called aerobicrespiration while the one occur in the <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862465384160158029643">absense</gwmw>of oxygen is called anaerobic respiration<div>Aerobic Respiration:</div><div> In the presence of oxygen complete oxidation of oxygen complete oxidation of glucose<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862466451692855394979">occur</gwmw> with <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862466451690606726837">maximum release</gwmw> of energy. In the first phase of aerobicrespiration a molecule of glucose (6-c) is broken down into two <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862470286685434220403">molecule</gwmw> of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862470286681855546310">pyouvic</gwmw>acid.In the second phase molecule of pyruvic acid <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862470309246497616625">arecompletely oxidized</gwmw> to <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862469143657484560051">co</gwmw><sub>2</sub><sub><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862470644833508271548">and</gwmw> water and all energy is released The overall reaction is a fallows</sub></div><div><sub>C6</sub><sub>H12</sub><sub>O6 = 6O________&gt; 6CO2 + 6H2O Energy Anaerobic Respiration:</sub></div><div><sub> In the absence of oxygen, glucose in incompletely oxidized with less amount of energy released. In an anaerobicrespiration. The first phase is exactly similar to that of aerobicrespiration. A molecule of glucose is broken down into two <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862483474055531941054">molecule</gwmw> of pyruvic acid<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862483474054308819860"> .</gwmw>But in the second phase pyruvic acid is not completely oxidized it is transformed into<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862483520623461582696">ehyl</gwmw>alcohol or lucidacid. In this way of the C-H ponds are left unbroken in the products Anaerobic respiration is further classified as alcoholismfermentation and lactic acid.</sub></div><div><sub>Alcoholic fermentation:</sub></div><div><sub> It <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862476921409639313524">occur</gwmw> in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862476921408542613987">bacteria yeast</gwmw> etc. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862477440709555578056">in</gwmw> this type of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862477045987553686902">enaerabic</gwmw>respiration pyruvicacid is further broken down into alcohol. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15862477787396836112086">(</gwmw>C2H5OH) and Co2</sub></div><div><sub><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862478016304615427015">pyruvic</gwmw>acid _____&gt; Ethyl Alcohol + Carbon dioxide</sub></div><div><sub><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862478502145217227513">lactic</gwmw> acid:</sub></div><div><sub> It occurs in <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862479387216038446501">skeleton muscles</gwmw> of humans and other animals during extreme physical activities. This <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15862479666617391678243">also happen</gwmw> in the bacteria present in milk. This type of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862481262657500022995">aerabic</gwmw>respiration. <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862480184493742772116">each</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862479956464118157161">pyrucic</gwmw> acid molecule is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862480763802321961009">coverted</gwmw> into lactic acid (C2H6O5)</sub></div><div><sub><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15862480488224389105407">Pyruvic</gwmw> acid _____&gt; lactic acid</sub></div>
Question: 13
Q no5 (B) Explain Limiting factors in photosynthesis
Answer: 13
13-20
Any environmental<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-2" id="gwmw-15864183404346818256933">factor the absence</gwmw> or deficiency of which can decrease the rate of metabolic reaction is called limiting factor for that reaction Many <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864183404342498999693">factor</gwmw> like light intensity, temperature, concentration of carbon dioxide and availabilityof water act as <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864183404348996210415">liming factor</gwmw> for synthesis.<div>Effect of Light Intensity and Temperature:</div><div> The rate of photosynthesis varies with lightintensity. It <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864185574177655112420">decrease</gwmw> as light intensity decrease and increase as intensity<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864185574179335099276">increase however</gwmw> at much higher light intensity, The rate of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864185472828625755030">phatosynthesis</gwmw>becomes constant.</div><div>The rate of photosynthesis <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864185834269451994445">decrese</gwmw>with decrease in temperature<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864186149100537498204"> .</gwmw> It <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864186205911076378784">incresase</gwmw>as temperature is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864186436225719000473">increase</gwmw> over a limited range<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15864186436220138491436"> .</gwmw> But If <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864186528468398503603">light intensity</gwmw> is low.</div><div>Effect of carbon Dioxide concentration:</div><div> As <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864187210473349232594">carbon dioxide concentration rise</gwmw> the rate of photosynthesis goes on increasing unit.</div><div><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864188881681211901970">limited</gwmw>by other factor increase in carbon dioxide concentrationbeyond a certain level causes the closure of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-1" id="gwmw-15864188193494687132520">stomata</gwmw> and it <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15864188346125381267280">decrease</gwmw> the rate of photosynthesis.</div>
Question: 14
Write the summary of light reaction
Answer: 14
14-20
Light reaction / Z-scheme : During light reaction phase , light energy is captured and is to make high energy molecules (ATP and NADPH) .Theses reactions ,which are known as light reaction
Question: 15
Write a note on dark reaction .(Calvin cycle )
Answer: 15
15-20
Dark reactions were discovered by Malvin Calvin and his colleagues at the university of California . Calvin was awarded noble prize in 1961 for his work on photosynthesis<div>During this phase , CO2 is reduced to make glucose and energy from high energy molecules (ATP and NADPH) is utilized , since these reactions do not use light directly, they are known as dark reaction</div><div><br></div><div>Location : Dark reaction takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast</div>
Question: 16
What is the role of chlorophyll and light in photosynthesis ? Explain limiting factors in photosynthesis
Answer: 16
16-20
Role of light : Sunlight energy is absorbed by chlorophyll . It is then converted into chemical energy . This derives the photosynthetic process . Only about 1 % of the light falling on the leaf surface is absorbed , the rest is reflected or transmitted . The light rays of different wavelengths are not only differently absorbed by photosynthetic pigments but are also differently effective in photosynthesis
Question: 17
Define respiration and gives its types
Answer: 17
17-20
Respiration : In this process the C-H bonds are broken by oxidation-reduction reaction and so carbon dioxide and water are also produced , this cellular energy-yielding process is called respirationExplanation : When we burn a fuel , it utilizes oxygen and yields energy in the form of light , heat etc . In this burning process , oxygen is used to break the C-H bonds present in the food in their cells . This break down yields energy which is transformed into ATP . During this process the C-H bonds are broken by oxidation-reduction reaction and so carbon dioxide and water are also produced . The cellular energy -yielding process is called respiration
Question: 18
What is importance of anaerobic respiration ?
Answer: 18
18-20
Importance of fermentation : When life evolved on the earth , the early land or water habitats did not have any supply of free oxygen (O<sub>2</sub>) . In these anaerobic conditions , early organisms respired and got energy for their life activities<div><br></div><div>Anaerobes : Some organisms including some bacteria and some fungi get energy from anaerobic respiration and are called anaerobes</div><div><br></div>
Question: 19
Define nutrition and nutrients and explain types of organisms on the basis of nutrition
Answer: 19
19-20
Nutrition:<div>The process in which food is obtained or prepared ,absorbed and converted into body substances for growth and energy is called nutrition</div><div> Or</div><div>Nutrients :</div><div>The substances acquired by organisms to obtains and use for energy are called nutrients</div><div> OR</div><div>Nutrients are the elements and compounds that an organism obtained and uses for energy or for synthesis of new materials</div><div><br></div>
Question: 20
Explain mineral nutrients in plants ?
Answer: 20
20-20
Plants have the most efficient mechanisms for autotrophic mode of nutrition . Plants gets carbons , hydrogen and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water . In addition to these elements plants also require mineral elements for various activities and structures<div><br></div><div>Carnivores plants have evolved mechanisms for trapping and digesting small animals . The products of this digestion are used to supplement the plant 's supply nitrogen</div>