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Describe metabolism and its types. What is role of enzymes in metabolism?
Definition Metabolism is the set of biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Explanation of term 'Metabolism' The term metabolism is derived from a Greek word meaning "change". The concept of metabolism was first of all given by Ibn-e-Na-fees, who stated that "the body and its parts are always undergoing change" importance These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures and respond to their environments. Biochemical reactions in living organisms are essentially energy transfers. Types It is of two types (i) Anabolisin Anabolism includes the biochemical reactions in which larger molecules are synthesized. e.g., Photosynthesis and assimilation. Energy is utilized in anabolism. Catholicism Catholicism includes the biochemical reactions in which larger molecules are broken down. e.g., respiration and digestion of food. Energy is released in Catholicism Role of Enzymes during Metabolism During metabolism, chemicals are transformed from one form to the other by enzymes. Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they act as bio-catalysts and speed up and regulate the metabolic pathways.
Describe characteristics of Enzymes.
Introduction In 1878, German physiologist Winhelm Kuhne first used the term enzyme. Enzymes are globular proteins and are made of long, linear chains of amino acids that fold to produce a three dimensional molecule. Characteristics of Enzymes in nature (i) All enzymes are protein Almost all enzymes are proteins i.e. they are made of amino acids. (ii) Increase the rate of reaction The most enzymes reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable uncatalysed reactions. (iii) Not consumed by reaction As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze. (iv) Enzymes are specific Enzymes are usually very specific for the type of reaction and for the nature of their substrates. (v) Active sites Only a small portion of enzyme molecule is directly involved in catalysis. This catalytic region is known as active- site. It recognizes and binds substrate, and then carries out the reaction. (vi) Enzymes activity can be regulated Enzyme production can be enhanced or diminished by a cell according to needs. Enzyme activity can also be regulated by inhibitors and activators. (vii) Co factors Some enzymes do not need any additional component to work. However, others require non protein molecules or ions called co factors. Cofactors can be either inorganic (e.g. metal ions) or organic (e.g. flavin and heme). a) Prosthetic groups If organic co factors are tightly bound to enzyme, they are called prosthetic groups. b) Co-enzymes If organic co-factors are loosely attached with enzyme, they are called co-enzymes. Co-enzymes transport chemical groups from one enzyme to another. Some important co¬enzymes are vitamins (e.g. riboflavin, thiamine and folic acid). (viii) Enzymes can work together in a specific order Several enzymes can work together in a specific order, creating metabolic pathways. In a metabolic pathway, one enzyme takes the product of another enzyme as a substrate. After the reaction, the product is then passed on to the next enzyme. Uses of enzymes Enzymes are extensively used in different industries for fast chemical reactions. For example i) Food Industry Enzymes that break starch into simple sugars are used in the production of white bread, buns etc. ii) Brewing industry Enzymes break starch and proteins. The products are used by yeast for fermentation (to produce alcohol). Enzymes break starch to lower its viscosity that aids in making paper. iii) Pro tease enzymes are used for the removal of protein stains from clothes. Amylase enzymes are used in dish washing to remove resistant starch residues.
Q no: 5 (A) How temperature affects <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15859837888581409854753">rate</gwmw> of enzyme action.?
Increase in temperature seed up the rate of enzymecatalyzed reaction out only to a point. Every enzyme work at its maximum rate at its maximum rate at a specific temperature called as the optimum temperature for that enzyme
.When temperature rises to a certain limit heat adds in the activation energy and also provides kinetic energy for the reaction so reaction are accelerated rises to a certain limit heat adds in the activation heat energy increases the vibration of atoms of enzyme and the globular structure of enzyme is lost. This is known as the DENATURATION of enzyme . It result in a rapid decrease in rate of enzyme action and it may be blacked completely.
Q no: 6<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15859843564921868272606">(</gwmw>B) Write character of <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15859843564923546645553">enzyme</gwmw> <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15859843564925684999032">make</gwmw> them <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15859843564921712281651">specific</gwmw> for Substrate?
In 1878, German psychologist WINHELM KUHNE first term the term enzyme. Enzyme are
glabular prateins, like all proteins, enzyme are made a long linear chairs of amino acid That fald to produce a three dimensional molecule.
. Almost all
enzyme are protinsthey are made of amino acid
. Most enzyme reaction
rates are millions of time faster than those comparable uncatalyzed reaction as with all catalysts. Enzyme are natconsumed by reactions they catalyze.
. Enzymes are usually very specific
for the types of reaction and for the nature of their substrates
Enzyme production can be enhanced or diminished by a cell according to needs.
Enzyems activity can also be regulated by inhibitiorsand activator.
. Only a small portion of enzyme molecules is directly involved in catalysis. This catalytic region is known as active site it recognizes and binds substrate and then carries out
Q no: (A) What is <gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-3" id="gwmw-15859861954662685811584">enzyme</gwmw><gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15859861954660062896011"> ,</gwmw> write the use of enzyme in different industries?<div><br></div>
Enzymes are extensively used in different in differentancestriesfor fast chemical
reaction for example. Enzyme break starch to lower itsviscosity that aid in making paper.
Every one that
break strichinto simple sugars are used in theproduction of white bread bunssetc.
break starch and pratcins. The products are used by yeast for fermatation.
Protease enzymes are usedfor the removal of
proteins stains from clothes . Anylase enzymes are used in dish washing to remove resistant starch reduce.
Q no: (B) Write use of enzyme?<div><br></div>
Enzymes can be
categerized on the basis of the site where they work i.e They may be intracellular enzyymes(e.g. enzymes of glycolysis working in the cytoplasm or may be extrocellularenzymes ( e.g. pepsin enzymes working in the stomach cavity)
Q no<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15859941761277678290488">:</gwmw>7 (A) Explain the mechanismof enzyme action?
When enzyme attaches with substrate, a temporary enzyme-substrate, a temporary enzyme-substrate (ES) complex is formed.
Enzymecatalyzesthe reaction and Substrate is transformed in to product After it , the ES complex breaks and enzyme and enzyme and product are released.
E+S_____>ES complex _____>E+P
In order to explain the mechanism of enzyme action a german chemist Emil Fircher in 1894, Proposed lock and key model
. According to this model, both enzyme and substrate processspecific shapes that fit exactly into one another.
This model explains enzyme specificity.
In 1958, an American biologist Daniel
koshland suggested a modification to lock and key model and proposed induced fit model. According to the model active site is not a rigid structure rather it is molded into the required shape to perform its function induced fit model is more acceptable than " lock and key "model of enzyme action.
Q no<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15859957275241766948673">:</gwmw>7<gwmw class="ginger-module-highlighter-mistake-type-6" id="gwmw-15859957275244208545328">(</gwmw>B) Define Metabolism, Anabolism, and Catabolism.
Metabolism is the set biochemical reactions that occur
i living organisms in order to maintain life. These processes allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments.
Anabolism includes the biochemical reactions in which larger molecules are synthesized .
Catabolism includes the biochemical reactions in which larger molecules are broken down usually energy is
relasedin Catabolism and it siutilized in anabolism . In this way the biochemical reaction are actually energy transfers.
Define the term<div>-Metabolism<div>-Catabolism</div></div>
Metabolism : It is the set of biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life
The term metabolism is derived from a Greek word meaning change . The concept of metabolism was first all given by Ibn-e-Nafees who stated that' the body and its parts are always undergoing change '
How do enzymes lower activation energy ?
The minimum energy to start a reaction on the other hand it act as a barrier to the beginning of reaction is known as activation energy
Enzymes lower such barriers by decreasing the requirements of activation energy . Thus in the presence of enzymes , reactions proceed at a faster rate