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Bone is the hardest commective tissue in body not only move support and protect the various parts of body but also produce red and white blood and store minerals.
Structure of bone:
The hard outer layer of a bone is called compact bone.
The interior of bone is soft and porous. it is called spongy bone. Spongy bone contain blood versels and bone morocco.
Bone contain different types of cells the mature bone cells are called osteocytes.
Hydrophytes are the plants with live completely or partially submerged in freshwater .such plants do not face the problem of water storage. they have developed mechanisms for the removal of extra water from their cells .hydrophytes have broad leaves with a large number of stomata on their upper surfaces.
Xerophytes live in dry environments .they possess thick, waxy cuticle over their epidermis to reduce the water loss from internal tissues .They have less number of stomata to reduce the rate of transpiration.such plants have deep roots to absorb maximum water from soil.
Halophytes live in sea waters and are adapted to salty environments, salts enter in the bodies of such plants due their higher concentration in sea water, on the other hand ,water tends to move out of their cells into the hypertonic sea water. When salts enter into cells , plants carry out active transport to move and hold large amount of salts vacuoles.
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact .They allow movement and provide
Mechanical support.Joint can be classified on the basis of the degree of movement they allow.
Types of joint:
Such joint allows no movement the joint between the skull bones.
Slightly Moveable Joint:
Such joint allows slights movements joints between the vertabree.
They allow a variety of movement .Shoulder joint hip joint, elbow joint knee joint etc.There are many many types of moveable joints in body the main types are hing joint and ball and socket joint.Hing joints move back and forth like the hinge on a door and allow movement in one play only .the knee and elbow are hinge joints, Ball and socket joint allow movement in all direction. The hip and shoulder joints ball and socket joints.
The main function of kidney is urine formation which take place in three steps first step is pressure filtration when blood enters the kidney via the renal artery, it goes to many arterioles, and then to the glomerulus.The pressure of blood is very high and so most of the water, salts, glucose and urea of blood is forced out of glomerular capillaries.
Selective re absorption:
The second step is the selective re absorption in this step about 99% of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed into the blood capillaries surrounding renal tubule.
The third step is the tubular secretion ions, creatinine, urea, etc, are secreted from blood into the filtrate in renal tubule.
Osmoregulatory is defind a the regulation of the concentrationof water and salts in blood and other body fluids.k idneys play important role in osmoregulation by regulating the water contents of blood.It is an important process as excessive loss of water concentration the body fluids whereas excess intake of water dilutes them.
Arthritis means inflammation in joints . it is also very common in old age and in women. It is characterized by pain and stiffness in joints particularly in the weight bearing joints e.g hip joints ankle joints etc.
It involves the inflamation of the membraines at joints.It symptoms include fatigue low grade fever pain and stiffness in joints.
Usually occur with age and effect the figure knees and hip.
Bowman’s capsule the part of nephron cup shaped structure enclosing the glomerulus.
Osmoregulation is defined as the regulation of concentration of water in blood and other body fluids.
Homeotasis may be defined as the maintenance of the internal condition of body at equilibrium despite change in the enternal environment.
Encretion is also a process of homeostasis in this process the metabolic wastes are eliminated from body to maintain the internal condition at equilibrium.
The movement of an organisms from one place to another often by the action of appendages such as flagella limbs or wings in some animals such as fish locomotion result from a wave like series of muscle contraction.
Enoskeleton is the enternal skeleton that support and protact an animals body.
Plants store large amount of water in their cells for turgidity extra water is removed from plant body by transpiration.
The appearance of drops of water on the tips of edges of leave is called guttation.
Endoskelton is the internal bone or cartilage structure of animals which have a vertable and some animals without vertable endoskeleton mean inside of the human body.
Hard connective tissue move supports and protect the various organs of the body
The connective tissue that make part of the human skeleton.
Nephron is the functional unit of kidneys.
The first step in urine formation the process in which most of the water salt glucose and urea of the blood is forced out glomerulus and passed into bowman’s capsule.
The cleaning of blood removing nitrogenous wastes and extra water by artificial ways.
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact they allow movement and provide mechanical support.
The system responsible for the production and encretion of urine include kidneys ureters urinary bladder and urethra.
Hard connective tissue moves supports and protects and protects the various organs of the body.
The tube into which the renal tubules of nephron open.
Treatment for removing kidney stones non electrical skock wave are bombared on the stones to break them.
The collective name for the glomeulus and boeman’s capsule of the nephrone.
Vertebrates in most vertebrate the jaw are bony or cartilaginous and oppose vertically comprising an upper jaw and lower jaw.
Skeleton components the skeleton is composed of fibrous and minner alized connective tissue that give it firmness and flexibility.
Appearance of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves.
Hydrophyle are the plant Which live completely or partially submerge in freshwater.
The material that passes from glomerulus into the bowman’s capsule.
The mature bone cells are called osteocytes.