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Dear students, prepare for biology class 10th chapter 3 long questions. These important long questions are carefully added to get you best preparation for your 10th class biology ch. 3 exams.
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Our database contains a total of 0 questions for biology Short Questions. You’ll prepare using this huge databank.

Question: 1
Define the compnents of coordinated action.
Answer: 1
Question: 2
Describe the structure of neuron.
Answer: 2
Question: 3
Describe the sturucture of brain.
Answer: 3
Question: 4
Write a note on spinal cord.
Answer: 4
Question: 5
Write anote on peripheral nervous system.
Answer: 5
Question: 6
Write a niote on reflex action.
Answer: 6
Question: 7
Describe the structure of eyes.
Answer: 7
Question: 8
Describe disorder of eyes.
Answer: 8
Question: 9
Describe the structure of Ear.Also explain the process of hearing.
Answer: 9
Question: 10
Write a note on Thyroid Gland.
Answer: 10
Question: 11
Define nerve and write about its types?
Answer: 11


A nerve mean the union of several axon that are enveloped by a covering made of lipid bared on the property of axon the nerve.

Classified into three types:

Sensory Nerves:

Contains the axon of sensory neurons only

Motor nerves:

Contain the axon of motor neurons only

Mixed nerves:

Contain the axons of both i.e sensory and motor neurons.

Question: 12
What are the parts of hind brain and how they perform their functional?
Answer: 12

Hind brain:

Hind brain consists of three major parts.

Medulla oblongata:

Lies on the top of spinal cord it controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. It also controls many reflexes such as vomiting, coughing, sneezing etc.Information that passes between spinal cord and the rest of brain pass through medulla.


Cerebellum is behind medulla. It coordinates muscle movements.


Pons is present on top of medulla it assists medulla in controlling breathing. it also serves as a connection between cerebellum and spinal cord.

Question: 13
Explain how adrenaline may be involved in exercise and emergency condition?
Answer: 13

Adrenal glands:

Two adrenal glands are situated above kidneys Each adrenal glands consists of two parts the outer parts is cortex and the inner part is medulla. Adrenal medulla secretes a hormone called epinephrine or adrenaline is response to stress. It prepares our body to overcome emergency situations.Therefore adrenaline is also termed as emergency hormone.The adrenal cortex secretes many hormons called corticosteroids which maintain the balance of salts and water in blood.

"When a person experiences fear anger or anxiety of heartbeat increase blood pressure increase blood flow to the limbs increase blood flow to the elemantory and skin is reduced.Such changes prepare the body to face any emergency situation".

Question: 14
Explain location and function of forebrain and its parts?
Answer: 14


Forebrain is the largest area of brain.It is most highly developed in humans.Following are the important parts of this region.


Thalamus lies just below cerebrum.It serves as a relay centre between various parts of brain and spinal cord .It also receives and modifies sensory impulses before thay travel to cerebrum.Thalamus is also involved in pain perception and consciousness.


Hypothalamus lies above midbrain and just below thalamus in human. It is roughly the size of an almond. One of the most important functions of hypothalamus is to link nervous system and endocrine system. It controls the secretions of pituitary gland. It also controls feelings such as rage, pleasure and sorrow.


Cerebrum is the largest part of forebran.It controls skeletal muscles,thinking, intelligence and emotions it is divided into cerebral hemispheres.The anterior parts of cerebral hemisphere are called olfactory bulbs which receive impulses from olfactory nerves and create the sensation of smell.The upper layer of cerebral hemisphere i.e cerebral cortex consists of grey matter.The grey matter of nervous system consists of cell bodies and non-myelinated axons.

Lobe Function:


Controls motor functions, permits conscious control of skeletal muscles and coordinates movements involved in speech.


Contains sensory areas that receive impulses from skin


Receives and analyzes visual information.


Concerned with hearing and smell.

Question: 15
Explain with diagram, structure and location of spinal card?
Answer: 15

Spinal cord:

The spinal cord is tubular bundle of nerves. It starts from brain stem and extends to lower back. Like brain, spinal cord is also covered by meninges.The vertebral column surrounds and protects spinal cord.

The outer region of spinal cord is made of white matter the central region i butterfly shaped that surrounds the central canal. It is made grey matter.31 pairs of spinal nerves arise along cord These are mixed nerves because each contains axons of both sensory and motor neurons at the point where a spinal nerve arises from spinal cord, there are two roots of spinal nerve. Both roots unite and form one mixed spinal nerve.

The dorsal roots contains sensory axons and region where cell bodies are located.

The ventral root contains axons of motor neurons.

Spinal cord performs two main functions:

It serves as a link between body parts and brain. Spinal cord transmits nerve impulses from body parts to brain and from brain to body parts.

Spinal cord also act as a coordinator, responsible for some simple reflexes.

( Make diagram)

Question: 16
Name the harmone secreted by parathyroid gland discuss its function and also deficiency caused?
Answer: 16

Parathyroid gland:

These are four glands situated on the posterior side of thyroid gland. They produce a hormone known as parathormone.It increase the level of calcium ions in blood. when there is increased production of parathormone, more than normal calcium salts are absorbed from the bones and added to blood.

Consequently the bones become brittle if there is deficiency in the production of parathormone, blood calcium level falls. It leads to tetany, which affects the functioning of muscles.

Question: 17
<p class="MsoNormal">What do you mean by coordination and types of coordination?</p>
Answer: 17

These are the organ that receive information from receptors and send message to particular organ for praper action brain and spinal cord are coordination they cord are coordination they are two types of coordination in organ’sms nervous coordination brought about by nervous system chemical coordination brought about by endocrine system.

Question: 18
<p class="MsoNormal">Define reflex action and reflex are?</p>
Answer: 18

The involuntary and immediate response to a stimulus.

Reflex are:

The nerve pathway over which the nerve impulse travel in a reflex action.

Question: 19
<p class="MsoNormal">What is nerve impulse?</p>
Answer: 19

Neuron are specialized cells that are able to conduct nerve impulse from receptor to coordination and from coordination to effectors.

Question: 20
<p class="MsoNormal">Define cell body?</p>
Answer: 20

The part of the nerve cell that contain nucleus .

Question: 21
<p class="MsoNormal">Define colour blindness?</p>
Answer: 21

Genetic disorder in which person fails to recognize the basic colour.

Question: 22
<p class="MsoNormal">What is choroid?</p>
Answer: 22

The middle layer is called choroid it contain blood versels and gives the inner eye a dark colour.

Question: 23
<p class="MsoNormal">What are effectors?</p>
Answer: 23

The poor of the coordination system that respond when stimulated by nerve impulses or hormones.

Question: 24
<p class="MsoNormal">Difference between cerebellum and cerebrum?</p>
Answer: 24

The part of the hind brain and controls muscles movement .


The largest part of the forebrain controls many sensory and motor function.

Question: 25
<p class="MsoNormal">What is ear drum?</p>
Answer: 25

Tympanic membrane a membrane stretched across the inner end of the auditory canal of the ear.

Question: 26
<p class="MsoNormal">Define exocrine gland?</p>
Answer: 26

A gland that discharges its recretion into a duct.

Question: 27
<p class="MsoNormal">What is insulin?</p>
Answer: 27

The harmone product by the islets of larger hans lowers the blood glucose level.

Question: 28
<p class="MsoNormal">Define Neuron?</p>
Answer: 28

Nerve cell the unit of the nervous system able to conduct nerve impulses.

Question: 29
<p class="MsoNormal">What is paralysis?</p>
Answer: 29

Complete loss of function by one or more muscle group due to damage in the nervous system.

Question: 30
<p class="MsoNormal">Define pituitary gland?</p>
Answer: 30

The endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus that controls many other endocrine glands in the body.

Question: 31
<p class="MsoNormal">Define receptor?</p>
Answer: 31

The organ tissues or cells which deteet particular type to stimuli.

Question: 32
<p class="MsoNormal">Define retina?</p>
Answer: 32

The inner most and the sensitive layer in the eye.

Question: 33
<p class="MsoNormal">What are sensory nerve?</p>
Answer: 33

The nerve which contain only the axons of sensory neurons.

Question: 34
<p class="MsoNormal">Difference between thyroid and thyroxin?</p>
Answer: 34


The endocrine gland located in front of the trachea secretes harmones thyroxin and calcitonin.

Question: 35
<p class="MsoNormal">What is tetany?</p>
Answer: 35

A condition that is due to low blood calcium and is characterized by spasms of the hand and feet tetany is generally considered to result from very low calcium level in blood.

Question: 36
<p class="MsoNormal">Define the term harmone and endocrine system?</p>
Answer: 36

The endocrine system chemically controls the various function of cells tissues and organs through the secretion of harmone the endocrine system imclude the adrenal gland parathyroid gland pituitary gland and thyroid gland as well as ovaries pancreas and testes.

Question: 37
<p class="MsoNormal">How would you associated the rate of vitamin A?</p>
Answer: 37

Body synthesizes rhodospin from vitamin A and that is why the deficiency of vitamin A cause poor night vision this problem is called night blindness.

Question: 38
<p class="MsoNormal">What is hypothalamus?</p>
Answer: 38

The part of the forebrain below the thalamus control body temperature blood pressure and emotion.

Question: 39
<p class="MsoNormal">Define optic disc?</p>
Answer: 39

Blind spot a point on the retina of the eye where the optic nerve enters the retina no photosensitive cell exit at this point.

Question: 40
What is biodiversity ?
Answer: 40
Biodiversity : Biodiversity has been derived from bio and diversity . Bio means life , diversity means variety . It is a measure of variety of organisms present in different ecosystem

Flora : Plants found in an ecosystem
Fauna : Animals found in an ecosystem
Depends upon diversity : Biodiversity depends on climate altitude and soils and in the presence of other species
Question: 41
What is importance of biodiversity to natural ecosystem and humans ?
Answer: 41
Importance of Biodiversity :
1: Food : Bio diversity provides food for human and other species
2: Drugs : A significant proportion of drugs are derived directly or indirectly from biological sources
3: Industrial material : A wide range of industrial materials like building material , fibers , dyes , resins , gums , adhesives, rubber and oil are derived from biological resources
4: Maintaining Ecosystem : It plays important role in the making and maintaining ecosystem
5: Our atmosphere and water supply : It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atmosphere and water supply
6: Recycling nutrients : Biodiversity is directly involved in recycling nutrients and provide fertile soil
Question: 42
Define classification . What are the purpose of classification ?
Answer: 42
Classification : The method / process of making groups or sub groups of organisms on the basis of different and similarities are called classification

Question: 43
What are the main aims of classification ?
Answer: 43
Aims of classification :
Taxonomy : The branch of biology which deals with classification is called taxonomy
Question: 44
What is taxonomic hierarchy ? Define its taxa .
Answer: 44
The groups in which organisms are classified called Taxa they form a ladder called Taxonomic Hierarchy
All organisms are divided into five kingdoms . So kingdom is the largest taxon . In the basis of similarities . each kingdom is further divided into smaller taxa in following way :
Phylum (Division :for plants and fungi ) A phylum is group of related classes
Class: A class is a group of related orders
Order : An order is a group of related families
Family : A family is a group of related genera
Genera : A genus is a group of related species
Species : A species consists of similar organisms
Each category is called Taxon
Question: 45
What is the basic unit of classification ?
Answer: 45
Species : A species is a group of organisms which can be interbreed freely among them and produce fertile offspring but are reproductively isolated from all other such groups in nature
Each species possesses its own distinct structural , ecological and behavioral characteristics . It is the basic unit of classification

Question: 46
What do you know about the history of classification ?
Answer: 46
Aristotle :The earliest known of classification comes from Greek philosopher Aristotle . He classified all living organism known at that time in Plantae Animalia

Question: 47
Explain two kingdom classification systems
Answer: 47
Two kingdom systems:
It is the oldest system and classifies all organisms into two kingdoms
1: Kingdom plantae
2: Kingdom Animalia
Kingdom plantae : According to two kingdom system , all organisms that can prepare food from simple inorganic materials and thus can store energy are autotrophs and are included in kingdom plantae . According to this system , bacteria , fungi ,and algae were included in kingdom plantae

Question: 48
What are characteristics of three kingdoms of classification ?
Answer: 48
In 1866 , Ernst Hackel solved the first objection and proposed a third kingdom i-e protista to accommodate euglena -like organisms . He also included bacteria in kingdom protista . In this system fungi were still included in the kingdom plantae
Question: 49
Write the history and the general characteristics of the five kingdom ?
Answer: 49
Five kingdom of classification :In 1973 ,, E-Chatton suggested the term of Procariotique to describe bacteria and Eucariotique to describe animal and plant cells . In 1967 , Robert Whittaker introduced the five kingdom classification system

Basis of classification: The levels of cellular organization i-e prokaryotic , unicellular eukaryotic and multicellular eukaryotic
The principle modes of nutrition i-e photosynthesis , absorption an ingestion :
On the basis , organism are classified into five kingdoms , monera ,protista , fungi , plantae and Animalia
Modification by Margulis and Schwartz
In 1988 , Margulis and Schwartz modified the five -kingdom classification of Whittaker . They considered genetics along with cellular organization and mode of nutrition in classification . They classified the organisms into the same five kingdom as proposed by Whittaker
Question: 50
In which kingdom viruses are considered ?
Answer: 50
Status of viruses : Viruses are acellular i-e they do not posses cellular organization yet show some characters of viruses . viruses are infection entities which contains either RNA or DNA normally encased in protein coat and reproduces only in living cells , where they cause a number of diseases . They are not considered as organisms and thus are not included in the five-kingdom classification system Prions and viruses are also acellular particles and are not included in the five-kingdom classification system

Question: 51
Define binomial nomenclature . Explain its rules and significant
Answer: 51
Binomial nomenclaturebinomial nomenclature is the method of giving scientific names to living organisms . As the word binomial suggests the scientific name of species consists of two names , the first is the genus name and the second one is the name of the species

Swedish biologists Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778 ) first introduced and adopted the system of binomial nomenclature . His system spread rapidly and became popular . Many of his name are in use today
Question: 52
Why the conservation of biodiversity is needed?
Answer: 52
Loss of biodiversity
During the last century , loss of biodiversity has been increasingly observed . Most species that have gone extent
In the modern era , due to human actions ,species and ecosystem are the threatened with destruction to an extent rarely seen earth history
A species that no linger lives in an ecosystem is said to be extinct , the stability of ecosystem is harmed . Biologists warn that the global ecosystem would collapse if it is further reduced in complexity
Question: 53
What are the impacts of human beings on biodiversity ?
Answer: 53
The earliest fossils are clearly Homo sapiens our species are clearly 500,000 years old . By 10,000years ago there were about 5 million people on earth . With the advancement in agriculture and industry , the human population began to grow rapidly . Today around 600 million people live on earth . Habitat loss is probably the greatest threat to biodiversity on Earth today

To improve the living conditions for 600 million human , we are imposing serious threats to the survival of much biodiversity. Some of the impacts of human beings on biodiversity are being discussed

Question: 54
What are causes of deforestation and its effects on biodiversity?
Answer: 54
Deforestation : Deforestation means cutting down of trees for the conservation of a forest to non-forest land It is done for using the land for various purposes such as urban development
The destruction of significance areas of forest has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity

Question: 55
What is the importance of forest ?
Answer: 55
Importance of forest:
1:Forests support considerable biodiversity ,providing valuable habitat for wildlife
2:The utilization of forests products ,including timber and fuel wood , have played a key role in human societies . Comparable to the role of water and land