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Breathing the physical moments associated with the gaseous exchange are called breathing. They are two phases of breathing.During inspiration the rib muscle contract and rib are raised.Human breath 16___20 per minute in normal circumstances at rest. The rate ofbreathing is controlled by the respiratory center in the brain.The respiratory center is sensitive to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood when we do eur muscle exercise or do hard job our muscle cell carry out cellular respiration at great rate its result in the production of more carbon dioxide stimulate the respiratory center of brain. The respiratory center send of massage to the rib muscle and diaphragm to increase the rate of breathing.So that the excess carbon dioxide preasnt in blood can be removed out of body, during exercise hard physical works the breathing rate my increase upto 30_____ 40 time per minute.
Bronchitis is the inflammation of the brochi or brounchioles leading to the swelling to tublar walls and narrowing of tube.
Causes of Bronchitis:
It is caused by rariuse bacteria or exposure to chemical irritants (e.g tobacco smoke)
Symptoms of Bronchitis:
Symptoms of Bronchitis include a cough mild wheezing,fever chills, and shortness of breath.
Emphysema is the distraction of the walls of the alvedi.It results in larger sacs but with less surface area gaseous exchange.The lungs do not come back to their original shape after exhalation.
Symptoms of Emphysema:
The symptoms of emphysema include shortness of breath, fatigue, recurrent, respiratory infections and weight loss. The level of oxygen in blood may get so low that it causes serious complications.
Asthma is a form of allergy, in which there is inflammation of the bronchi, more mucous production and narrowing of the airways.
Symptoms of Asthma :
The symptoms of asthma vary from person to person. The major symptoms include shortness of breath wheezing cough and chest tightness.
Treatment of Asthma:
The chemicals with ability to dilate the bronchi and bronchioles are used in the treatment of asthma.Such medicines are given in the form of inhalers.
Cause of Asthma:
Cause of asthma dust ,smoke, perfume, pollens etc.
Pneumonia is a infection of lungs if this affect both lungs it is called double Pneumonia.
The most common cause of pneumonia is bacterium Streptococcus pneumonia. Same viral and fungal infection may also dead pneumonia.
Vaccine are available to prevent pneumonia antibiotics are used in the treatment of pneumonia.
Homeostasis in plants:
Plants store respond to environmental changes and keep their internal condition constant i.e homeostasis .They apply different mechanism for the homeostasis of water and other chemical ,oxygen carbon dioxide nitrogen’s materials ie.
Removal of extra carbon dioxide and oxygen:
In day time the carbon dioxide dining cellular respiration is utilized in photosynthesis and hence it is not a waste product .At night , it is surplus because there is no utilization of carbon dioxide.
Oxygen is produced in mesophyll cells only during daytime, as a by product of photosynthesis .After its utilization in cellular respiration, the mesophyll cells remove the extra amount of oxygen through stomata.
Removal of extra water:
We knows that plants obtain water from soil and it is also produced in the body during cellular respiration. Plants store larger amount of water in their cells for turgidity. Extra water is removed from plant body by transpiration.
Removal of other metabolic wastes:
Plants deposit many metabolic wastes in the bodies as harmless insoluble materials. For example:
Calcium oxalate I deposited in the form of crystals in the leaves and stems of many plants e.g in tomato.
The trachea is 12 cm long tube it lies in font of the esophagus it is also called as windpipe there are c shaped castilaginous nings in the wall of tracrtilaghea the cartilages keep the trachea from callapring even when there is no air in it.
Nasal cavity is the hallow space in the through nostrils and divided into to positions by a wall.
The nose enclose the nasal cavity it opens to the outside through the openings called the nostrils.
The woody stems and mature roots the entire surface is covered by bark which I impervious to gases or water however there are certain pores in the layer of bark these are called the lenticels the lenticels allow air to pass through them.
The larynn is a bon made of carti;age it is present between pharynn and trachea it is also called vaice bon two pairs of fibrous bands called vocal crods are stretched across the larynn.
The phase of breathing in which air is expelled from the lungs is called exhalation.
The carbon dioxide produced during cellular respiration is taken out of the cells and ultimately from the body taking in oxygen and giving out of carbon dioxide is termed as gaseous exchange.
Emphysema is the destruction of the walls of the aloveali it results in larger sacs but with less surface area for gaseous exchange as lung tissue break down the lung do not come back tho to their original shaped after exhalation.
The muscular structure that form the floor of the chest cavity present below lungs .
The part of air passage way formed by the division of the trachea.
The process through which animals take air in their bodies to get oxygen and then give out the air for getting rid of carbon dioxide.
Asthma an information of the bronchi that causes swelling and narrowing of the airways.
The leaves and young stems have stomata in their epidermis the gaseous exchange occur through these stomata the inner cells of leaves and stems also have air spaces among them which help in the exchange of gases.
Alvealor duct fine tubules at the end of bronchioles open into alveoli.
Within the lungs the bronchi divide into fine tubules called as bronchioles.
Inflamation in the bronchi are called bronchioles.
A sac Like structure present next to the alveolar ducts in lungs.
Organisms get the oxygen needed for cellular respiration from their environment and provide it totheir cells the carbon dioxide produce during cellular respiration taken out of the cell and ultimately from the body.
Aerobic respiration is the process of produce cellular energy involving oxygen cell break down food in the mito chondoia in a lung multi step process that produce roughly 36 ATP the first step in a giycolysis the second is the citric acid and third is the electron transport system.
Glottis is a narrow opening at the floor of pharynn which lead into larynn.
Intercostals muscles the muscles located the ribs surrounding the lungs compairing the superficial enternal intercostals muscle and the deep internal intercostals muscle they play role in breathing.
The pathway air enter the nostrils through the glottis into the trachea into the right and left bronchi which bronchies and rebronches.
The air pass away consist of the parts through which the out side air comes in the lungs and often the exchange of gases it goes out.
Taking in oxygen and giving out of carbon dioxide is termed as gaeous exchange respiration involves the mechanical and biochemical process whereas breathing is the mechanical or physical process of exchange of gases.