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Competition on population:
A group of the organisms of the same species inhabiting a specific geographical area at a particular time is called a population, all the population that live in a habitat and intact in various ways with one another are collectively called a community.
When the industrial revolution started some 250 year ago the world population was at 600 million that seem like a lot of people., but now the world population is almost ten times at 6 billion and will grow to 8 billion by 2025.Better health facilities and lowered mortality rates have contributed in population growth.
Urbanization means growing of cities people move from rural areas to cities in search of better jobs education opportunities’ and higher standards of living , if there is rapid urban growth, the government find it, difficult to provide health even the basic facilities like health education shelter water electricity most of the migrants is cities do not find good jobs and become the point of urban poor. There is overcrowding in schools hospitals, etc.The slum areas increase in number and people living there are at greater risk of diseases urbanization is a global problem and cannot be stopped but it can be merged,the current level of urbanization is palastan about 32% which is not high by global standards, utilization of public transport instead of individual transports also proves effective way to managed urbanlizations.
A type of inter specific interaction in which smaller partnes derives food and shelter foam the body of longer partnes and( host) and ham’s the hot. In temporary the parasite spends most of its life cycle as independent free living organisms only a part of its life cycle is spent as a parasite.Leach bed bug mosquito are common temporary parasite of humans in permanent povasitism,the parasites spend their whole life cycle as parasite. Many diseases causing bacteria.All viruses are permanent parasite .Prasite may also be classified and endoparasite .Endoparasite live out side on the surface of hasts body and get food from there mosquitoes leaches lice etc are te example of ectoparasite.
Endo parasite live inside the body of host and get food and shelter bacteria viruses tapeworm ascaris entamoeba plasmodium etc are the example of some plants cuscuta also called dodder are parasites on other plants grow special types of roots into rest body and suck the required nutrients foam the vascular tissues of host.
When rain falls through polluted air it comes across chemical such as oxide of sulphur and nitrogen there chemical intract with water vapours in the presene of sunlight to sulphuric acid and nitric acid, there acid remains as vapours at high temperature As temperature falls the acid begin to comdence into liquid form and mix with rain or snow on the way down to earth this makes rain acidic with ph range of 3 to 6 some of the significant ill.
Effect of acid rain:
Acid rain are destroys the necessary nutrients prevent in the waters of rivers and lowers the ph pf water of the aquatic animals cannot survive at this ph.Acid rain washes nutrients to acid rain are out of soil domages the back and leaves of trees and harm roots hairs leaf pigonents are also destroyed metals surface exposed to acid rain are easily corrded febrics paper leather products love their materials strength or disintegrate easily.
We have studied in lower studied in classes about the basic component of on ecosystem we know that on ecosystem comprises of two basic parts abiatic components and biatic components.
Include the living factor presence in ecosystem the important non living factor light air water soil and the basic element and compounds.
The biotic components comprise the living part of the ecosystem biotic componants are furthere classified as producers consumers and decomposers.
The producers are the autotrophs present in on ecosystem. Producers includes plants algae and photosynthetic becteria there organisms are able to synthesize complex organic c compounds food from inorganic raw materials.
The Consumers are heterotrophy they cannot synthesize their food and so depend upon producers for food consumers includes all animals fungi pratozooms and may of the ecosystem
They are further classified as herbivores and carnivores herbivores cattle deer rabbit grass hopper etc food on plant they are primary consumers.
Secondary consumers feed on primary carnivores wolf and owl etc are secondary carnivorous lion tertiary carnivores lion tiger etc, feed on secondary carnivorous.
Decomposers or reducers break down the complex organic compounds dead matter into simple compounds.
Human society is becoming more and more dependent on technology and industries are making life easier and convenient for human but are also contributing towards the pollution of environment pollution is defined as any indefinable change in physical chemical or bioliogical characteristic of air water and land that any harmful effect living organisms and natural resources.
Air Pollution is one of the major environmental issues of today it is defined as the change of composition of air by the addition at harmful substances , all sources of air pollution are related to human activities burning of coal produce a lot at smoke and dust where as burning of petroleum produce sulphur dioxide.
Effect of air pollution:
We have studied that global warming one of the consequences of air pollution.
When pollutant like hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide combine in the presence of sunlight smog is formed this is a mixture of gases.
The air pollutant like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water in the atmosphere producing acid rain.
The uppar layer of the atmosphere has ozone which absorbs ultraviolet uv rays present in the sun radiation however the air pollutant like chlorofluorocrbons (CFCS) destroy the ozone molecule and so breaclce the ozone layer.
Control of air pollution:
For effective control of air pollution it is important to create awareness about the ill effect of air pollution.
It means the establishment of new forests by planting or non forest areas forests are effective mean to control air pollution because plants com fitter and absorb air pollutant.
Modification of industrials effluents:
The air pollutant coming from industries should be passed through fitters and other device,so that particulates matter is removed before the waste gases are released out.
Environment friendly fuels;
Lead free fuels should be used in automobiles similarly sulphur free fuels should be used in coal bared industry to reduce pollution by sulphur dioxide.
Carbon atom is the principle building block of many kinds of biomolecules.Carbon is found as graphite and diamond in nature it is also occurs as carbon dioxide in atmosphere major source of carbon for the living world is carbon dioxide present in atmosphere and water. Fossil fuels like peat, coal natural gas and petroleum also contain carbon ,carbonates of earth ‘s crust also give rise to carbon dioxide. The major process that brings carbon dioxide from atmosphere ,convert it into organic compounds in this way carbon becomes a part of the body of producers this carbon enters food chains and is passed to herbivores, carnivores and decomposers. Carbon dioxide is released back to environment by respiration of producers and consumers it is also released by the decomposition of organic wastes and dead bodies by decomposes. Burning of wood and fossil fuels also adds large amount of carbon dioxide into atmosphere.
Competition of population:
A group of the organisms of the some species inhabiting a specific geographical area at a particular time is called a population all the population that live in a habitat and intract in various ways with one another collectively called community.
When the industrial revolution started some 250 year ago the world population was at 600 million that seem like a lot of people but no the world population is almost ten times at 6 billion and will grow yo 8 billion by 2025 better health facilities and lowered mortality rates have contributed in population growth.
Urbanization means growing of cities people move from rural areas to cities in each of better jobs education opportunities and higher standards of living if there is rapid urban growth the government find it difficult to provide health even the basic facilities like health education shelter water electricity most of the migrants is cities do not find good jobs and become the part o urban poor there is over crowding in schools hospitals etc.The slum areas people living there are greater risk of disease urbanization is a global problem and cannot be stopped but it can be marged, the current level of urbanization is Pakistan is about 32% which is not high by global standards utilization of public transport instead of individual transport also proves effective way to managed urbanization.
A type of inter specific interaction in which smaller partner derives food and shelter food the body of longer partner and host and harms the host. In temporary parasites spend most of its cycle as independent free living organisms only a part of its life cycle is spent as a parasites leach bed bug mosquito are common temporary parasites of humans in permanent parasitism the parasites spend their whole life cycle as parasites many disease causing bacteria.All viruses are permanent parasites ,parasites may also be classified as ectoparasites and endo parasites .End parasites live outside on the surface of hosts body and get food from there mosquitoes leaches lice etc are the example of ectoparasites.Endoparasites live inside the body of host and get food and shelter bacteria viruses tapeworm ascaris endameba plasmodium etc, the example of some plants cuscuta also called dodder are parasites on other plants parasites plants grow special types of roots into host body and suck the required nutrients foam the vascular tissues of host.
Ectoparasities live outside on the surface of host’s body and get food from there mosquitoes leeches lice etc.
Endoparasiteis live inside the body of host’s and get food and shelter bacteria viruses tapeworm ascaris entamoeba plasmodium etc.
Omnivores are the censumeos that eat animals flesh as well as plants and plants products
Herbivores e.g cattle deer rabbit grass apper etc feed on plants.
A type of inter specific interaction in which smaller parteners derives food and shelter from the body of laryer partene and harm the hart.
The rain containing sulphuric acid and nitric acid with ph range of 3 to 6.
Clearing of forests by natural cause or by humans.
The part of the biotic components of the ecosystem that consists of animals.
Herbivores cattle deer rabbit etc feed on plants they are the primary consumers they feed directly on plants or product of plants.
Tertiary carnivores are not eaten any other animals they are also called top carnivores.
Pyramid of number:
The graphics representation of number of individuals per unit area at various tropic level in an ecosystem.
Pyramid of biomass;
The graphic representation of biomass present per unit area at different trophic level in an ecosystem.
An organisms that produces orgamic compounds from inorgamic compounds on autotraph.
The part of the biotic components of the ecosystem that consist of animals.
An organism which decompose the dead bodies and dead matter.
A representation of the number of individuals or amount of biomass or energy present in various traphic level of a food chian.
When pollutants like hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides combines the presence of sunlight smog is formed.
The air pollutant like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide react with water in the atmosphere producing acid rain.
The upper layer of the atmosphere has ozone which absorbs ultraviolet rays present n the sun radiation.
It means the established of new forests by planting on non forests areas.
It is relationship between member of different species in they live together for longer or shorter period of time.
The symbiotic association n which bath the parteners get benefit and neither is harmed.
A type of ymbiosis in which one of the partener gets benefits while the other is neither benefited nor harmed.
A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed freely in nature to produce fertile off spring.
The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment is called ecology.
All the population that live in a habitat and intract in various ways with one another are collectively called community.
A group of organism of the same species inhabiting a specific graphical area at a particular time is called a population.
The nitrates formed by the above processes are absorbed by plants and are utilized for making proteins etc.
We have studied in lower classes about the basic components of an ecosystem we know that an ecosystem comprises of two basic parts abiotic compounds components and biotic componants.
The energy in producers tissues flows to herbivours when producers are eaten.
The transfer of pollen grains from flowers another to stigma the substance that causes pollution.
Underireable change in the physical chemical or biological characteristic of air water and land that may harmfully effect living organisms and non other resources.
NACP aims to accelerate the process of reversal and further strength of the epidemic response.
The non living components of environment live water sunlight soil and heat etc.
The living components of the environment include producers consumers and decomposers.
The conversion of atmospheric gareous nitrogen to nitrates by thunder storms and lighning.
The conversion of atmospheric gaseous nitrogen into nitrates by living organisms.
The servier of organisms in an ecosystem in which an organisms eat the precedinbyg one and is eaten by the next one.
A network of interconnected food chain has a number of feeding cormeation amongst different organism of a community.
Herbivores cattle deer rabbit grasshopper etc feed on plants they are the primary consumers.
Secondary consumers feed on herbivores fox, frog, predatory birds many field and snake etc.