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What is function of neuron?
Neurons conduct impulses from receptors to coordinator and from coordinators to effectors.
What is cerebrum? What is its function?
It is the largest part of brain Function; It control skeletal muscles, thinking, intelligence and emotions.
Define nerve, What are its types?
a nerve is formed by union of several axons that are enveloped by lipid layer. Types: i. Sensory nerves ii. Motor nerves iii. Mixed nerves.
Define nerve impulse.
A nerve impulse is waves of electrochemical changes with travels along the length of neurons.
What is the role of thalamus?
Relay centre between parts of brain & spinal cord receives and modifies sensory impulses before they travel to cerebrum . Pain perception and consciousness.
What are the major parts of brain?
Forebrain ii. Midbrain iii. Hind brain
What are sensory neurons?
SN(s) conduct sensory information from receptors to CNS, SN have one dedrite and one axon.
What is coordination?
The tissues or organs in body of multicellular, organism work together performing their tasks as the needs of the whole body. This is called coordination it has 2 types. i. Chemical coordination ii. Nervous coordination.
What are the parts of neuron?
Neuron consists of two parts cel body and fibres. cell body consists of nucleus and cytoplasm.Fibers are of two types, dendrites and axons.
Name the parts of forebrain.
i. Thalamus ii. Hypothalamus iii. Cerebrum
What are receptors?Give examples.
Cells, tissues or organs of body which detect stimuli are called receptors, e.g. Sound waves are detected by ear, light is detected by eyes, taste is detected by taste buds on tongue.
What is spinal card?
It is the continuation of medulla oblongata. It is a tubular bundle of nerves. It consists of outer white matter and central grey matter.
What is optic disc or blind spot?
Optic disc is a point on retina where the optic nerve centers retina. No photosensitive cells exist at this point, so it is called blind spot.
What are the components of a coordinated action?
Stimulus , Receptor , Coordinator, Effector, Response
What are sense organs? Give example.
Organs which detect stimuli are called sense organs, e.g. eyes, ears, nose,etc.
Define reflex action.
The fast involuntary action in which spinal cord act as a coordinator.
What is retina?
It is inner layer of eye ball. It contains rods and cones and associated neurongs.
What is choroid?
It is middle layer of eye ball. It contains blood vessels and gives a dark colour it bends behind cornea to form iris.
Define Reflex arc.
It is nerve pathway over which nerve impulse travels in a reflex action.
What is cerebral cortex.
Upper surface of cerebral hemispheres is called cerebral cortex. It consists of grey matter, it has four lobes. i. Frontal lobe ii. Parietal lobe iii. Temporal Lobe iv. Occipital love
What are the function of spinal cord?
i. It serves as a link between body parts and brain. ii. It acts as a coordinating centre, respobsible for simple reflexes.
What is the function of lens of eye?
If focuses light on retina and produce image an it.
What is the role of medulla oblongata?
i. Controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. ii. Controls vomiting, coughing sneezing.
What is optics? who is regarded as father of optics?
Optics refers to the study of behavior of light. Ibn- A;-Haytham is regarded as father of optics.
What are the functions of insulin and Glucagon?
Insulin: Decrease the blood sugar level. Glucagon: Increases the blood sugar level.
Name the parts of hind brain.
i. Medulla oblongata ii. Cerebellum iii. Pons
What are endocrine glands? Give example.
These are ductless glands which secrete hormones into blood e.g. thyroid, pituitary, adrenal etc.
Define endocrine system.
This system consists of endocrine glands and hormones. Through hormones, this system communicates.
What is thyroxin? What is its role?
It is the hormone secreted by thyroid glad. Role: i. It increase "breakdown of food and release of energy. ii. It is responsible for growth of body.
What are exocrine glands? Give example.
these are ducted glands e.g. liver, salivary glands.
It is a specific messenger molecule synthesized and secreted by an endocrine gland.
What is air passageway?
The air passageway consist of the parts through which the outside air comes in the lungs and after the exchange of gases it goes out.
What is cellular respiration?
Organism get the oxygen needed for cellular respiration from their environment and provide it to their cells.The carbon dionide produce during cellular respiration taken out of the cell and ultimately from the body.
What is night blindness?
the deficiency of vitamin A causes night blindness.
What is aerobic respiration?
Aerobic respiration is the process of produce cellular energy involving oxygen cell break down food in the mito chondoia in a lung .
Name parts of inner ear?
Vestibule ii. Semicircular canals iii. Cochlea
What is pituitary gland? Name its lobes.
It is a pear shaped glad attached to the hypothalamus of brain. Lobes: i. Anterior lobe ii. Posterior lobe
A sac-like structure present neut to the alvaolar duet in lungs.
What is the contribution of Ali-Ibn Isa?
He wrote three books ophthalmology 130 eye diseases and prescribed 143 drugs to treat these diseases.
Trace the path of air from the nasal cavity to the alveoli?
The pathway air enter the nostrils through the glottis into the trachea into the right and left bronchi which bromchies and rebromches.
What is colorblindness?
Cones recognize the primary colours are blue green and red Damages to these pigments result in colour blindness. This is genetic problem in which person is unable to distinguish between different colour.
What are intercostals?
Intercostals muscles the muscles located between the ribs surrounding the lungs comprising the superficial eternal intercostal muscle and the deep internal intercostal muscle they play role in breathing.
Difference between breathing and respiration?
Taking in oxygen and giving out of carbon dionide is termed as gaseous exchange.Respiration invalves the mechanical and biochemical process where as breathing is the mechanical or physical process of exchange of gases.
Inspiration or Inhalation.
During inspiration the rib muscles contract and rib are raised.At the same time dome-shaped diaphragm contract and is lowered.These movement increase the area of the thoracic cavity which reduce the pressure on lungs As a result the lungs enpamd and the air pressure with them also decrease.The air from outside rushes into the lungs to equalize the pressure on bathe side.
Describe the mechanism of breathing.
The physical movement associated with the gaseous exchange are called breathing.They are two phase of breathing inhalation and enhalation.