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Define gametophyte generation?
The spores develop into gametophyte generation. The gametophyte is tiny as compared in the sporrophyte.It is haploid and produces gametes by mitosis.
Reproduction is defined as the production of individuals of the same species i.e. the next generation of species. It is of two types. 1. Sexual reproduction 2. A sexual reproduction
Define sporophyte generation?
In most plants the sporophyte generation is dominant. It is diploid (2N) and produced haploid(1N) Spore by meiosis.
What are rhizomes? Give examples
Rhizomes are horizontal underground stems with scale leaves, there are enlarged portion called nodes on rhizome. Buds are produced at nodes. the buds present on the upper surface of rhizomes reproduce by rhizomes.
What is cloning?
Cloning is the latest method of vegetative propagation. In this method, identical off spring are produced from a single parent using the parent tissue of vegetative cells.
What is flower? What are its whorls?
Flower is the reproductive structure in sporophyte generations the outermost two whorls in a flower are the non reproductive whorls while the inner two whorls are the reproductive whorls.
What is embryo? What are its parts?
Embryo is an immature plant and consist of a radical , a plumule and one or two cotyledones .
What is parthenogenesis? Give example.
Parthenogenesis is also considered as a form of asexual reproduction in it, and unfertilized egg develops into new offespring some fishes, frogs and insects reproduce by means of parthenogenesis.
Define asexual reproduction,name its types.
A sexual reproduction does notinvolve the fusion of gametes types. 1. Binary fission 2. Fragmentation 3. Parthenogenesis 4. Vegetative propagation 5. Spore formation
Give examples of animals in which binary fission occurs?
This type of asexual reproduction is common in planaria and many echinoderm.
What are endospores?
Spores formation also occurs in bacteria such as clostridium and bacillus species. These bacterial spores are also called endospores.They are thick walled and are formed under unfavorable conditions.
What are bulbs? Give example.
Bulbs are short underground stems surrounded by thick, fleshy leaves that contain stored food Roots emerge under the base of bulb which stores food Roots emerge under the base of bulb while shoots emerge from the top of the base.Tulips, onion and lilies reproduce by bulbs
What is sexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction involves the production and fission of gametes special structures produce sperms and egg cells and there are various method in plants for bringing the sperm and egg nuclei together.
What is Ear drum?
Tympanic membrane A membrane streched across the inner end of the auditory canal of the ear.
What is calyx? What is its role?
Calyx is the outer most whorl and usually green in colour. Its individual units are called sepals. It protect the inner whorl at bud stage.
What is seed coat? What is its role?
Seed coat develops from the integument, originally surrounding the ovule, seed coat in mature seed may be a paper thin layer or thick and seed coat protects embryo from mechanical injury and from drying out.
Define pollination, name its types.
Pollination is defined as the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma. Two types of pollination are recognized. i. Self pollination ii. Cross pollination
Define the term hormone and endocrine system.
The endocrine system chemically controls the various function of cells tissues and organs through the secretion of harmone. The endocrine system include the adrenal gland parathyroid gland pituitary gland and thyroid pancreas and taste.
Define self pollination?
Self pollination is defined as the transfer of pollen grain from the anther to the stigma of the some flower or other flower of the same plant.
What function of radical and plumule?
the radical of embryo develops into new root while the plumule develops into new shoot.
From what part seed and fruit develop?
Ovule becomes seed and ovary changes into fruit, after teh act of double fertilization.
What is corolla? What is its role?
Corolla is the inner to calyx. It is often coloured brightly. Its individual units are called petal. They serve to attract bees, birds, etc which are the agents of pollination.
Define Cell body?
The port of the nerve cell that contain nucleus.
What is androecium?
Third whorl of flower is androecium which is the male reproduction part of flower. Its units are called stamens.
What is gynoecium?
Fourth whorl of flower is gynoecium which is the female reproductive part of flower its units are called carpals .
Difference between cerebellum and cerebrum?
Cerebellum:The part of the hind brain and contrails muscles movement.
Define cross pollination.
Cross pollination is the transfer of pollen grain from the flower on one plant to the flowers on the plant of same species. Cross pollination is brought about by various agencies lime , wind, water, bees , birds, bats and other animals includings man.
What is epigeal germination? Give examples.
In epigeal germination, the hypocotyls elongates and form hook, pulling the cotyledon above ground Beans, cotton and papaya are examples of plants that germinate this way.
Define colour blindness.
Genetic disorder in which person fails to recognize the basic colour.
Define exocrine gland?
A gland that discharges its secretion into a duct.
Define parthenocarpy? Give examples.
In some plants, ovaries develop into fruits without the fertilization inside their ovules.this process is known as parthenocarpy and it results in seedless fruits e.g. bananas and seedless varieties of grapes.
Waht is the % age of HIV infected people in Pakistan.
According to UNAIDS estimates, some 70,000 to 80,000 persons, or 0.1 percent of the adult population in Pakistan, are infected with HIV.
What are schwann cells?
The supporting cells around neurons form the myelin sheath.
What is Insulin?
The harmone product by the Islets of langerhans lowers the blood glucose level.
What is hypogeal germination/ Give example.
In hypogeal germination, the epicotyls elongates and forms the hook. In this type of germination the cotyledons stay underground Pea, maize and coconut germinate this way.
The formation of gametes is called gametogenesis, in this process, diploid gamete mother cells undergo meiosis and differentiate to form mature haploid gametes.
How would you associated the role of vitamin?
Body synthesizes rhodospin from vitamin A and that is why the deficiency of vitamin A cause poor night vision.This problem is called night blindness.
What are effectors?
The port of the coordination system that respond when stimulated by nerve impulses or hormones.
Define reflex action and reflex are.
Reflex Action: The involuntary and immediate response to a stimulus.
Define fertilization. What are its types?
Fertilization is the process of union of male and female gametes to form zygote.
Nerve cell the unit of the nervous system able to conduct nerve impulses.
What are sensory nerve?
The nerve which contain only the axons of sensory neurons.
What is tetany?
A condition that is due to low blood calcium and is characterized by spasms of the hand and feet tetany is generally considered to result from very low calcium level in blood.
What is Hypothalamus?
The part of the forebrain below the thalamus control body temperature blood pressure and emotion.
What are sexually transmitted disease? Give an example.
Sexually transmitted are defined as diseases that are transmitted through sexual act e.g. AIDS.
What do you mean by coordination and types of coordination?
These are the orgam that receive information from receptors and send message to particular orgam for praper action brain and spinal cord are coordination.They are two types of coordination in organisms.
Define Optic disc?
Blind spot a point on the retina of the eye where the optic nerve enters the retina no photosensitive cell exit at this point.
What is paralysis?
Complete less of function by one or more muscle group due to damage in the nervous system.
The organ tissues or cells which detect particular type of stimuli.
Define Pituitary gland?
The endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus that controls many other endocrine glands in the body.
Difference between thyroid and thyroxin?
Thyroid: The endocrine gland located in front of the trachea secretes harmones thyronin and calcitonin.
What is nerve impulse?
Neuron are specialized cells that are able to conduct nerve impulse from receptor to coordination and from coordination to effectors.
The innermost and the sensitive layer in the eye.