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What is green house effect?
The term green house effect refers to the phenomenon in which certain gases called green house gases trap heat in atmosphere like the glass in greenhouse prevents rising warm air from escaping.
What are biotic component ?
The biotic components comprises the living part (organism) of the ecosystem
Biotic components are further classified as producers , consumers and decomposers
Name the types of parasite.
i. Ectoparasites ii. Endoparasites.
What is effect of global warming?
Due to global warming, polar ice caps and glaciers are melting faster than the time taken for new ice layer. Due to melting glaciers, river overflow and cause flood.
Write a note on biosphere .
All ecosystem of the world together form a biosphere
It includes all the ecosystem of the plant earth . In other words the biosphere consists of all organisms present on earth and all region of earths where they live . Biosphere range from the floor of oceans to the top of highest mountains . It is about 20 km thick
What is deforestation?
Deforestation means the cutting of forest by natural causes of humans activity.
Name the components of ecosystem .
A ecosystem comprises of two basic components
1: Abiotic component
2: Biotic component
What are ectoparasites?
Ectoparasite are live outside i.e. on the surface of host's body e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, lice etc.
Define ecosystem . Give an example .
A natural self-sufficient unit of an environment that is formed as a result of interaction between its biotic community and the abiotic components is known as ecosystem
What are producers ?
Producers are the autotrophs present in an ecosystem
These include plants , algae , and photosynthesis bacteria , which synthesize complex organic compounds (Food) from inorganic raw material
Define global warming?
The addition of green house gases in atmosphere these gases increase the temperature of earth is called global warming.
What are endoparasites?
Endoparasites are parasite which live inside the body of host e.g. plasmodium, ascaris and entamoeba etc.
What is community ?
All the populations that live in a habitat and interact in various way with one another are collectively called a community
What are top carnivores ?
Tertiary carnivore are not eaten by any other animals . They are also called top carnivores
What are phytoplankton ?
In aquatic ecosystem , the main producers are floating photosynthetic organisms (Mainly algae) called phytoplanktonand shallow water rooted plants
Define species .
A species is a group of organisms which can interact freely in nature , to produce a fertile offspring
What are secondary carnivores . Give example .
Secondary carnivore (tertiary consumer) feed on primary carnivores . Wolf and owls etc are secondary carnivores
Define population .
A group of organisms of the same species inhabiting a specific geographical time is called a population
What are tertiary carnivore ?
Tertiary carnivore e.g lion , tiger etc feed on secondary carnivore
What are consumers ? What are their types ?
The consumers are heterotrophs . They cannot synthesizes their food and so depend upon producers for food
What are primary carnivores ?. Give example .
Primary carnivores (Secondary consumer)feed on herbivores . Fox ,frog , birds , many fishes and snakes etc are primary carnivores
What is the significance of carbon atoms ?
Carbon cycle is perfect cycle in the sense that carbon is returned to atmosphere as soon as it is removed
What are omnivores ? Give example .
Omnivores are consumers that eat animal flesh as well as plants products and plants
For example : Man , crow , bear etc
What are decomposers ?
An organism which decomposes the dead bodies and dead matters
Write condition which influence that organism ?
An organism environment is the sum of physical (abiotic) and biological (biotic) conditions which influence that organism
What are primary consumers ? Give example
Herbivores are called as primary consumers . They feed directly from plants and product of plant e.g cattle , deer etc
Define pyramid of biomass.
It is the graphical representation of biomass present per unit area at different trophic level
Define biochemical cycle .
Biochemical cycle is a pathway through which material moves from environment to organism and back to environment
What is the primary source of energy for all the ecosystem ?
The sun is the primary source of energy for all ecosystem
What are secondary Carnivores. give example
Secondary carnivores (tertiary consumers ) feed on primary carnivores . Wolf and owls etc are secondary carnivores
The study of interrelationship between organisms and their environments is called ecology
What is food web ?
A network of food chains which are inter connected at various tropic level
What is the importance of nitrogen ?
Nitrogen is an important and structural components of many necessary compounds like proteins and nuclei acid (DNA and RNA)
What are the tertiary carnivores ? Give example .
Tertiary carnivores are not eaten by any other animals . They are also called top carniovores
How carbon from atmosphere is brought into living world ?
The major process that brings carbon from atmosphere into living world is photosynthesis
Define food chain . Give example .
A food chain is a series of an organism within an ecosystem , in which each organism feed on the one before it and is fed by the one after it
Name different types of interaction in ecosystem ?
Define denitrification ?
It is a biological process in which nitrates and nitrites are reduced to nitrogen gas by denitrifying bacteria . By this process , nitrogen is retuned to atmosphere
What is urbanization ?
Urbanization means the growing of cities people more form rural areas to cities in search of better , Jobs , education , opportunities , higher standings of living organisms
Name different steps of nitrogen cycle .
1: Nitrogen fixation
What is industrial nitrogen fixation ?
In industrial nitrogen fixation hydrogen is combined with atmospheric nitrogen under high pressure and temperature . It produce ammonia which is converted into ammonium nitrate
Define predation .
It is an interaction between two animals of different species and between a plant and an animal . In predation one organism attacks , kills , and feed on other organisms
For what source plants show competition ?
Plans show competition for space , light , water and minerals
What is biological nitrogen fixation?
Some bacteria also have ability to transform gaseous nitrogen into nitrates . It is called as biological nitrogen fixation
What are herbivores ?
Herbivores e.g cattle , deer , rabbit , grasshopper etc feed on plants . They are primary consumers . They feed directly from plant and products of plants
Define ecological pyramids .
A representation of the number of individuals or amount of biomass or energy present in various tropic level of a food chain
What are endoparasites ?
Ectoparasites are parasite which live inside the body of host i-e plasmodium , ascaris and entameoba etc
Name the types of parasites ?
Parasites may be
What are carnivores . Give examples .
Carnivores feed on other animals e,g lion , dog , cat
Give example of predator .
All carnivores animals are predator b. For example frog prey upon predator like mosquito and fox prey upon on rabbit
Define number of pyramids .
It is the graphical representation of no of individual present per unit area at different trophic level
What is parasitism ?
It is the type of symbiosis (between members of different species ) in which smaller partner (Parasite ) derived food and shelter from the body of larger partner (host ) and in return harm it
Define commensalism . Give example
It is the part of symbiosis in which one partner is benefied while other is not benefied or not harmed . E.g sucker fish is attached with sucker with shark
How rhizobium bacteria from symbiotic association ?
These bacteria obtain food and shelter from plants while in return they fix gaseous nitrogen into into nitrates for the plant which is required for growth
What are biotic components?
the biotic components comprise the living part of the ecosystem biotic components are further classified as producers, consumers and decomposers.
What are permanent parasitism ?
In permanent parasitism the parasites spend their whole life as parasites e.g disease of bacteria and virus
What are abiotic components?
The abiotic components include non living factors are light, air, water, soil and basic elements and compounds.
Define symbiosis . Name its types .
It is the long term relationship between members of different species
Define food chain? Give example.
A food chain is a sereis of an organism within an ecosystem, in which each organism feed on the one before it and is fed by the one after it.
Define ecosystem. Give an example.
A natrual self sufficient unit of an environment that is formed as a result of interaction between its biotic community and the abiotic components is known as an ecosystem. Example: A pond a lake and a forest are example of natural ecosystem Ecosystem may also be artificial for example an aquarium.
What is ammonification ?
Ammonification is the breakdown of the protein and dead organism and nitrogenous wastes (Urea, uric , acid etc ) to ammonia . It is done by many ammonifying bacteria e.g many bacillus species
Define law of thermodynamics?
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from one form into another.
What are the products of the two types of carbohydrate fermentation?
1: Acholic fermentation e.g Acetaldehyde is reduced to ethanol
2: Lactic acid fermentation e.g Production of various types of cheese by milk
What is the primary source of energy for all the ecosystem?
the sun is the primary source of energy for all ecosystem.
Give an example how biotechnology is helping for better environment
Biotechnology has produced Single-cell proteins which are produced by using industrial wastes as raw material for micro organisms . It is used in controlling pollution . The better use of biotechnology is helpful for the betterment of environment
Define global warming .
The addition of green house gases (e.g carbon dioxide , methane , ozone ) in atmosphere these gases increase the temperature of earth is called global warming
What is community?
All the populations that live in a habitat and interact in various ways with one another are collectively called a community
How does material flow over in an ecosystem ?
The material flow occur from one tropic level to the next by means of food chain and food web
A group of organisms of the same species inhabiting a specific geographical time is called is population.
What is deforestation ?
Deforestation means the cutting of forests by natural causes or human activity
What are consumers? What are their types.
the consumers are the heterotrophs. They cannot synthesize their food and so depends upon producers for food. types: i. Herbivores ii. Carnivores.
What is mutualism?
the type of symbiosis , in which both partner get benefit neither is harmed.
Waht are omnivores. Give example.
Omnivores are the consumers that eat animal flesh as well as plants products and plants. Example Man, Crow, Bear etc.
Define law of thermodynamics
Energy neither be created nor destroyed but can be transferred from one form into another
What are decomposers?
An organism which decomposes the dead bodies and dead matters.
What is nitrification ?
After the ammonia formation , it is converted into nitrites and nitrates . It is called as nitrification . It is nitrifying bacteria . e.g ( Nitrobacteria)
What is muatulism ?
The type of symbiosis , in which both partner (of different species ) get benefit neither is harmed
What is food web?
A network of food chains which are inter connected at various trophic level
What are primary carnivores? Give example.
Primary carnivores feed on herbivores. Fox, Frog, birds, many fishes and snakes ete are primary carnivores.
What are acid rains ?
When rainfall through polluted air , it comes across chemical such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen . The chemicals interact with water vapour in the presence of sunlight to form sulphuric acid and nitric acid . Theses acid rains remain as vapour at high temperature
What are primary consumers? Gie example.
Herbivores are called as primary consumers. They feed directly from plants and product of plants e.g. castle, deer etc.
Define symbiosis. Name its types.
It is the long term relationship between members of different species.
types: Parasitism , Mutualism, Commensalisms.
What is parasitism?
It is the type of symbiosis in which smaller partner derived food and shelter from the body of larger partner and in return harm it.
What is atmospheric nitrogen fixation ?
Thunderstorms and lighting convert atmospheric gases nitrogen to oxide of nitrogen . The oxides dissolved in water and form nitric acid . The acid in turn combine with other salt to produce nitrates . It is called as atmospheric nitrogen fixation
How would you define fermentation with reference to biotechnology ?
In biotechnology fermentation means the production of any product vy the mass culture of micro organisms is called fermentation
Define nitrogen fixation .How does it occur ?
Conversion of nitrogen into nitrates is called nitrogen fixation . It occurs in following ways .
1: Atmospheric nitrogen fixation
2: Biological nitrogen fixation
3: Industrial nitrogen fixation
The study of interrelationship between organisms and their environment is called ecology.
Name difference steps of nitrogen cycle.
i. Nitrogen fixation ii. Ammonification iii. Assimilation
What is temporary parasitism ?
In temporary parasitism the parasites spend most of his life cycle as independent . Only a part of its life spend as a parasites leech ,bed , bug , mosquito
What are secondary carnivores? Give example.
Secondary carnivores feed on primary carnivores.Wolf and owls etc are secondary carnivores.
What is important of nitrogen?
Nitrogen is an important and structural component of many necessary compound like proteins and nucleic acid .
Give three examples of carnivorous plants
1: Pitcher plants
3: Venus fly trap etc
What is the significance of predation ?
Predation keep prey population under check so as to maintain an ecological balance
Name any two industrial products made by fermentation
1: Cereal products
2: Diary products
What is species?
A species is a group of organisms which can interbreed freely in nature to produce fertile off spring.
What are tertiary carnivores? Give example.
Tertiary carnivores e.g. lion, tiger etc feed on secondary carnivores.
What are effects of global warming ?
Due to global warming , polar ice caps and glaciers are melting faster than the time taken for new ice layer . Due to melting glaciers , river overflow and cause flood
What are herbivores?
Herbivores e.g. cattle, deer, rabbit, grass hopper etc feed on plants. They are primary consumers. They feed directly from plant and product of plants.
Give example of predator?
All carnivores animals are predator. For example frog prey upon redator like mosquito and fox prey upon on rabbit.
Define ecological pyramids.
A representation of the number of individuals or amount of biomass or energy present in various tropic level of a food chain.
What is green house effect ?
The term green house effect refers to the phenomenon in which certain gases called green house gasses trap heat in atmosphere like the glass green house prevents rising warm air from escaping
What are carnivores? Give examples.
Carnivores feed on other animals eg lion, dog, cat etc.
Give three examples of carnivorous plants?
Pitcher plants, sundew, venus fly trap etc.
Why carbon cycle is called perfect cycle?
Carbon cycle is a perfect cycle in the sense that carbon is returned to atmosphere as soon as it is removed.