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Define skeleton . Write its function .
Skeleton is framework of hard , articulated structures
What is rheumatoid arthritis ?
It involves the inflammation of the membranes at joints . It symptoms are fatigue , low grade fever , pain and stiffness in joints
What is osteoarthritis?
It is the types of arthritis due to degeneration in the cartilage present at joints or due to decreased lubricants production at joints . In this arthritis , fusion of bones at joint may occur and joints become totally immoveable
Differentiate between biceps and triceps
Biceps : Biceps is a flexor muscle on the front of the upper arm bone it originate from 2 tendons
Name the longest bone in our body
Thigh bone (femur)
What are the causes of osteoporosis ?
(lack of proteins and vitamins C )
(lack of proteins and vitamins C )
2: Lack of physical activities
3: Deficiency of estrogen hormone
What are the types of arthritis ?
2: Rheumatoid arthritis
What are treatments of arthritis?
1: Pain killer
2: Anti-inflammatory medicines
What are the major symptoms of arthritis ?
Pin , stiffness , Swelling of joints
What is meant by arthritis ?
Arthritis means inflammation in joints
Name the 2 disorders of skeletal system
What is osteoporosis ?
It is a bone disease in old men and women . There is decreased in density of bones due to loss of calcium and phosphorous
How many vertebrae are present in vertebral column ?
Where is present hyoid bone ?
It is present in neck
Name the chest bone .
Howe many pairs of ribs are present in human being ?
How does binary fission occur in bacteria ?
In bacteria , the DNA duplicates and forms two copies . Cell wall and membrane invaginates in centre and separates the cell into two . New cell wall is wall is deposited two cross membranes , which results in the formation of two daughter cell
What is budding ? How does it occur in yeast
In this type of asexual reproduction , a bud develops as a small outgrowth on parent body . In case of yeast ( a unicellular fungus ) a small bud is formed on one side of cell . The nucleus of cells divided and one of the daughter nuclei is passed into the bud of the parent cell mat form more than one bud at a time . Each bud enlarge and develops the characteristics of parent organism . The bud may separated from parent body
How does budding occur in corals ?
In corals , the bud do not detach from their parent body . By remaining attached to the main body these form big colonies
What is cranium ?
It is the part of the skull which enclose brain . It consists of 22 bones
What is multiple fission ?
Some unicellular (e.g amoeba ) form hard walls called cysts around them under unfavorable condition . When favorable conditions return . the nucleus of parent divides into many daughter nuclei of cytoplasm into several parts . Each new part of cytoplasm encloses one nucleus . So an number of daughter cells are formed from a single parent at the same time this kind of fission is known as multiple fission
Give example of animals in which binary fission occur ?
This type of asexual reproduction is common in planaria and many echinoderm
How many bones are present in axial skeleton ?
How many bones are present in appendicular skeleton ?
What is parthenogenesis ? Give example .
Parthenogenesis is also considered as a asexual reproduction . In it , and unfertilized egg develops into new offspring ,some fishes ,frogs and insects reproduce by means of parthenogenesis
What is lacuna ?
It is a fluid filled space in matrix of cartilage in which chondrocyte is present
What are endospores ?
Spores formation also occur in bacteria such as clostridium and bacillus species . These bacterial spores are called endospores . They are thick walled and are formed under unfavorable conditions
What are stem tubers ? Give example .
Stem tubers are the enlarged portions of an underground stem (rhizome) These are aggregations of tiny buds in the form of eyes along the surface of the tuber . Each bud develops into shoot that grows upward and also produces roots . Potatoes and yarms reproduce by tubers
What is sporangium ?
It is generally seen in most fungi (e.g Rhizopus ) one of the cells enlarges and forms sporangium (spores sac ) in which spores are produced by meiosis
Explain briefly the method of grafting?
In grafting, a piece of stem is cut from the plant and is inserted into another plant with established root system. After a while, after the vascular bundles of the stem and the host plants have been connected to each other, the stem and the plant begin to grow together. This method is used to propagate many rose, peach tree, plum trees etc.
Waht is stomata?
Thesee are small opeing which are present in the leaves and young stem epidermis.These helps in exchange of gases
How does bryophyllum reproduce vegetatively ?
Vegetative propagation by leaves is not common and seen in plants such as bryophyllum (pather chut) . This plant has fleshy leaves adventitious buds when leaf falls on ground , the buds grows into new plants
Define gaseous exchange?
the process of taking oxygen in and given out CO2 is called gaseous exchange. It is 2 types Brething, celluar respiration
What is the advantages of vegetative propagation.
The off springs produced through vegetative propagation are genetically identical. There- fore beneficial characteristics can be preserved.
What is glottis?
Glottis is a narrow opening at the floor of pharynx. Which leads into larynx.The air enters int the larynx through glottis.
What are sucker ? Give example
Suckers are lateral stems close to ground level . A sucker grows underground for some distance and then turns up producing the new plant . Mint and chrysanthemum reproduce in this way
Define reproduction .
Reproduction is defined as the production of individuals of the same species i-e the next generation of species . It is of two types
1: Sexual reproduction
2: A sexual reproduction
Define cellular respiration ?
Teh process in which the C-H bond of food is broken down into CO2 and H2O by using oxygen by oxidation reduction reaction is called cellular respiration.
What is the significance of reproduction ?
Reproduction is thus essentials for the continuation of species . It ensures that the genetic material of one generation is transmitted to next
Define asexual reproduction ,name its types .
Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes
1: Binary fission
5: Vegetative propagation
6: Spore formation
Write a sequence of underground stems for vegetative propagation in onion, ginger, potato and garlic?
Bulb ,rhizome, stem tuber and corn
They physical movement associated with gaseous exchange is called breathing.
Define vegetative propagation ? What are its types ?
When vegetative parts of plants i-e roots, stem ,or leaves give rise to new plants , the process is called vegetative reproduction or vegetative propagation . It occurs naturally , and can also be brought about artificially
Briefly describe the technique of tissue culture?
Tissues are taken from any part of plants and are put in a suitable nutrient medium . The tissues cells starts mitosis and produce masses of cells called calluses Calluses are transferred to other medium that contain different hormones for the formation of roots ,stem ,and leaves . These structure grows into small new plants are them planted in pots and then in fields.
What is diaphragm.
It is thick muscular, dome shaped strucute present below the lungs. It helps in breathing.
What is calyx? What is the function?
Calyx is the outer most whorl and usually green in color. Its individual units are called sepals.. It protects the inner whorl at bud stage .
What are the causes of cancer?
i. Smoking ii. Ionizing radiation iii. Viral infection.
What is the disadvantage of vegetative propagation?
The plants do not have genetic variations. Specific diseases can attack and this can result in the destruction of an entire crop.
What is gyenoecium?
Fourth whorl of flower is gyenoecium which is the female reproductive part of flower. Its units are called carpals (or pistils)
It is called wind pipe . IT IS 12cm long.There are C-shaped cartilaginous ring present in the wall of trachea.The cartilage keep the trachea in position and prevent it from collapsing even there is no air in it.
What is androceium?
Third whorl of flower is androceium which is the male reproduction part of flower. Its units are called stamens
What structure are responsible for gaseous exchange in leaves and young stems?
Stomata and lenticels.
What are corns ? Give example .
Corns are short and swollen underground stems contain stored food . Buds are present at the top of the corn . From a bud shoot grows and form a new plant . Dasheen and garlic reproduce by corns
Why do organisms need energy?
The organisms need energy in the form of ATP for their activities and processes.
What are rhizomes. Give example .
Rhizomes are horizontal underground stems with scale leaves (rhizome ). These are enlarged portions called nodes on rhizomes . Buds are produced at nodes . The buds present on the upper surface of rhizome reproduce by rhizomes
What are bulbs ? Give example .
Bubs are short underground stems surrounded by thick , fleshy leaves that contain stored food . Roots merge under the base of bulb while shoots emerge from top of the base . Tulips, onion and lilies reproduce by bulbs
Define double fertilization
One sperm fusses with egg. This results in the formation of a diploid zygote. The other sperm fuse with diploid fusion nucleus present inside the female gametophyte. It results ,1 the formation of , triploid nucleus called endosperm nucleus. Since the process of fertilization involve two fusions. it i: called double fertilization.
What is corolla? What is its role ?
Corolla is the inner to calyx. It is often colored brightly. Its individual units are called petal. The. serve to attract bees, birds, etc which are the agents of pollination.
Different between bronchi and bronchioles.
Trachea divided into two branches which are called bronthi. Each bronchus further divided in to fine tubes called bronchioles.
What is sexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction involves the production and fusion of gametes. Special structures produce sperms and egg cells and there are various method in plants for bringing the sperm and egg nuclei together.
What are bad effect of smoking?
1. Smoking causes cancer in kidney oral Cavity, larynx, breast, bladder. 2. Smoking effect air passage way. iii. Smoking effect circulatory system iv. Smoking cause arteriosclerosis and narrowing the arteries.
Define self pollination?
Self pollination is defined as the transfer of pollen grain front the anther to stigma of the some iii flower or other flower of the same plant.
What is function of radical and plumule?
the radical of embryo develops into new root while the plumule develops into new shoot.
How many types of bronchitis?
Bronchitis are of two type. i. Acute bronchitis ii. Chronic bronchitis.
Define pollination. Name its types?
Pollination is defined as the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma. Two types of pollination are recognized.(i) Self pollination(ii) Cross pollination
Name some respiratory disorders.
Bronchitis, Emphysema, Pneumonia, Asthma, Lungs cancer etc.
From what part seed and fruit develop?
Ovule becomes seed and ovary changes into fruit. after the act of double fertilization.
What are symptoms of Asthma?
Shortness of breath, Wheezing, Chronic cough, Tightness of chest.
Q.31. What is flower? What are its whorls?
Flower is the reproductive structure in sporophyte generations the outermost two whorls in a flowers are the non-reproductive whirls while the inner two whorls are the reproductive whorls
Define sporophyte generation?
In most plant the sporophytes generation is dominant . It is diploid (2N) and produces haploid (1N) spores by meiosis
What is seed germination?
Seed germination is a process by which a seed embryo develops into or seedling. During . germination. embryo soaks up with water which causes it to swell, splitting the seed coat. Root is the first structure that emerges from the radical present in seed. It grows rapidly and absorbs water and nutrients from soil. In the next phase, plumule develops into tiny shoot which elongates and comes out of soil.
What is seed dormancy?
Most seeds go through a period, during which there is no growth. This period is called the dormancy of the seed. Dormant seeds are ripe seed but do not germinate. Under favorable condition, the seed break dormancy and begin to germinate.
Difference between inspiration and expiration.
Intake of air from atmosphere into lungs is called inspiration and in expiration impure air is expelled out.
What is epigeal germination?Give examples
In epigeal germination, the hypocotyls elongates and forms hook, pulling the cotyledons above ground. Beans, cotton and papaya are examples of plants that germinate this way.
Define pollination . How its brought about
Cross pollination is the transfer of pollen grain from the flower on one plant to the flower on the plant of same species. Cross pollination is brought about by various agencies like, wind, water, bees birds. bats and other animals including man.
What are two phases of breathing.
1. Inspiration ii. Expiration
Differentiate between epicotyls and hypocotyls?
The embryonic stem above the point of attachment of cotyledon (s) is called epicotyls .The embryonic stem below the point of attachmentis called hypocotyls
What is pneumonia?
It is an infection of lungs. If it effects both lungs is called double pneumonia.
What is chronic bronchitis?
It usually lasts about three months to two years and it is develop by bronchi.
What is optimum temperature for germination of seeds ?
The optimum temperature for the germination of the seeds of most plants ranges from 25-30°C
What are causes of lungs cancer?
Carcinogens present in tobacco smoke ii. Ionizing radiations iii. Viral infection
What is semen ?
Semen is the material containing sperms in a fluid . It consists of 10 % sperms and 90% fluids . As the sperms pass down the ducts from testes to urethra , the associated glands add various secretions
What is lungs cancer.
It is disease of uncontrolled cell divisions in tissue of lungs.
What arc the conditions for seed germination.
Conditions for seed germination. Seed germination depends on both internal and external conditions. The internal conditions include a live embryo and sufficient food storage . The most important external conditions include water , oxygen and favorable temperature
How many carcinogens are found in cigarette smoke?
Define alternation of generations.
The life cycle of major plants show an alternation between two phases (generations) i-e sporophytes and gametophyte generations. The phenomenon in which two different generations alternate with each other during life cycle is known as alternation of generations.
What is bronchitis?
It is the inflammation of the bronchi & bronchioles. It result i more secretions of mucous into these tubes. It leads to selling of tubes.
What is hypogeal germination? Give examples.
In hypogeal germination, the epicotyls elongates and forms the hook. In this type of germination, the cotyledons stay underground. Pea, maize and coconut germinate this way.
What is treatment of Asthma?
Bronchodilators ii. Antibiotics
What are hilum and micropyele?
A scar on seed coat is called hilum. It is where the seed is attached to ovary wall (fruit). At one end of hilum. there is micropyle. This is the same opening through which the pollen tube entered ovule and seed uses it for the absorption of water.
What is W.H.O.
W.H.O means world Health Organization.
What are allergens?
Allergens are the chemical or substances that can irritate the respiratory tract are called allergens. For example pollens, fragrant particles, dust particle etc.
What are different parts of angiosperm seeds?
Angiosperm seeds consist of 3 distinct parts.
1: The embryo formed from zygote.
2: The endosperms tissue formed from endosperm nucleus, and
3: The seed coat which develops from the wall of ovule (integument)
What are preventive measures of lungs cancer?
i. Elimination of tobacco smoking ii.Cessation of smoking.
What is acute bronchitis?
It usually lasts about two weeks . It has no permanent damage.
Define gametogenesis .
The formation of gametes is called gametogenesis . In this process , diploid (2N) gamete-mother cells undergo meiosis and differentiate to form mature haploid (1N) gametes
What is passive smoking? What is its effect?
Inhalation of smoke from another's smoking is known as passive smoking. It may cause lungs cancer.
What are the parts of female reproductive system of rabbits ?
The female reproductive system of rabbit consists of ovaries and associated ducts
What are causes of asthma?
What is asthma?
It is chronic inflammation of bronchi which results in swelling and narrowing of air passageways.
What problems are associated with human over population ?
Many problems are associated with human over population
What is treatment of lungs cancer?
Chemotherapy ii. Radiotherapy
What is the role of seminal vesicles , prostate , and Cowper's glands ?
Seminal vesicles produce secretions that provide nutrients for sperms . Prostate gland produces a secretion that neutralizes the acidity . Cowper's gland produce secretions that lubricate that ducts
Define karyotype .
The entire chromosomes complement of an individual or cell is called karyotype
How many NGOs are working in Pakistan ? What are their objectives
According to the latest data by the world bank , at least 54 NGOs are working in Pakistan for HIV AIDS public awareness and for the cure and support of person living with HIV/AIDS
What is trachea?
The trachea is 12 cm long tube.It lies in front of the esophagus.It is also called as windpipe.These are C-shaped cartilaginous nings in the wall of trachea .The cartilages keep the trachea from collapsing even when there is no air in it.
What are the effect of summer on male-rabbits ?
Male rabbits are sterile during the heat of summer months
What is the percentage of HIV infected people in Pakistan ?
According to UNAIDS estimates , some 70,000 to 80,000 persons , or 0.1 percent of the adults population in Pakistan , are infected with HIV
What is linkage ?
The phenomenon of staying together of all the genes of a chromosomes is called linkage
What are sexually transmitted disease ? Give example
Sexually transmitted (STDS) are defined as diseases that are transmitted through sexual act e.g AIDS
What is genome ?
The total amount of genetic material in a chromosomes set of an individual is called its genome
What lanticals. Describe their function?
In woody stems and mature roots the entire surface is covered by bark which is impervious to gases or water.However there are certain pones in the layer of bark.These are called the lenticels. The lenticels allow air to pass through them.
Define genetics .
The study of inheritance and genetic material is called genetics
What is the unit of DNA?
Define fertilization . What are its types ?
Fertilization is the process of union of male and female gametes to form zygote
Define crossing over .
An exchange of segments between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes occurs at the chiasmata . This process is called crossing over
Define multiple alleles.
More than two alleles of a particular gene are called multiple alleles
Define Nasal Cavity?
Nasal cavity is the hallow space in the nose open to the outside through nostrils and divided into two portions by a wall.
What are parts of male reproduction system of rabbit ?
The male reproductive system of rabbits consists of a pair of testes that produce sperms , the associated ducts that transport sperms to external genitalia and glands that add secretions to sperms
What is the effect of carbon monoxide present in tobacco smoke?
CO in tobacco smoke decreases th O2 carrying capacity of hemoglobin.
Give examples of insect pollinated and wind pollinated flowers?
(i) Examples of insect pollinated flowers are buttercups, roses, wallflowers, sunflower, orchids etc.
(ii) Examples of wind pollinated flowers are grasses, hazel, willow, corn etc
What is the effect of smoking on teeth?
Smoking causes weakening and staining of teeth.The loss of teeth is 2-3 times higher in smokes than in non-smokers.
Define alleles ?
Patterns of gene pair is called alleles
What is genotype ?
It is the form of appearance of an individual is called genotype
What is the composition of deoxyribonucleotide ?
It is composed of
1: Phosphate group
2: Deoxyribose nucleus
3: Nitrogenous base
What are causes of bronchitis?
It is caused by viruses, bacteria or exposure to chemical irritants.
What is locus ?
The position of a gene on the chromosomes is called locus
What is homologous pair of chromosomes ?
The chromosomes , which are similar in their shape , size and position of centromere , make one homologous pair
Differentiate between spermatogenesis and oogenesis ?
The production of sperms in tests is calledspermatogenesisand the production of eggs in ovaries calledoogenesis
State the law of segregation ?
The two coexisting alleles of an individual for each trait segregate during gamete formation so that each gamete gets only one of the two alleles . This is called Mendel's law of segregation
Does smoking effect only lungs?
No, smoking may also effect other organs of body e.g. kidneys, oral cavity, larynx, breast, bladder, pancrea etc.
Who discovered chromosomes ?
Chromosomes was discovered by Waldeyar in 1876
What is the composition of ribonucleotide ?
1: Phosphate group
2: Ribose sugar
3: Nitrogenous base