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According to this law the rate at which a substance reacts is directly proportional to its active mass and the rate of a reaction is directly proportional to the product of the active masses of the reacting substances generally an active mass is considered as the molar concentration having units of mol dm-3 expressed as square brackets [ ] for example:
A+b____ Kf/kr C+D
The rate of kr the forward reaction * [Aa] [b]
= kf [A] [B]
Similarly: the rate of the reverse reaction
· [C] [D] = Kr [C] [D]
· The rate of forward = the rate of reverse reaction
· Kf [A] [B] Kr [C] [D]
· Kf/kr = [C] [D] ____ [A] [B]
· Where kc = kf/kr
· Kc is called equilibrium constant
· Kc= [C] [D]____[A] [B]
Concentration of hydrogen ion [H+] in pure water is the basis for the ph sacle water is a week electrolyle because it ionizes very slightly into ions in a process called auto ionization
H2O______ H+ +OH
Kc = [H+] [OH-]/[H2O]
Kc [H2O] = [H+] [OH-]
Kc = [H+] [OH-] =1.0 *10-14 at 25° C
H+ = [OH-] or [H2] =1.0*10-14
[H+] = 1.0*10-14
Therefore: [H+] =1.0*10-7 at 25° C
Ph is the negative logarithem of molar concentration of the hydrogen ion:
Ph= - log [H+]
Ph= - log [H+]
Poh = -log [OH-]
Poh = - log ( 1.0*10.7)=7
Ph +poh =14
It is used to detemile acidic os basic nature of a solution it is used to produce medicines culture of a microbiological particular concentration of H+ ion it is used to prepare solutions of required concentration necessary for certain biological reaction.
An equilibrium is achievable only in a closed system at equilibrium state a reaction does not stop forward and reverse reaction keep on taking place at the same rate but in opposite direction at reactants and products do not change an equilibrium state is attainable from either way starting from reactants or from products , an equilibrium state can be disturbed and again achieved under the given condition of concentration pressure and temperature.
Alkynes also form a series of compounds it first member I acetylene is a colorless gas with faint garlic odor,acetylene is slightly soluble in water but soluble in organic solven of acelone,elter etc,acelylene is slightly lighter than air.Alkynes are also flammable, they produce smokier flames them those of alkenes and alkenes.
As we know alkanes from a series of homologous compounds so their methods of properties are similar although there are many methods of proparation but only two methods are discussed here.
Hydrogenation of alkenes and alkanes:
Hydrogenation means addition of molecular hydrogen in alkanes and alkanes, as we know alkanes and alkanes are unsaturated compound so they have to capacity to add up atom in them this reaction is carried out in the presence nickel catalyst at 250 ° C to 300 ° C
H2C = CH2+H2_______H3C-CH3
HC =CH +H2______H2C=CH2
An acid is a substance which can accept a pair ofelectrons while a base is a substance which can donate a pair of electrons. While a base is a substance which can donate a pair of electrons:
The cations act as lewis acids or example a reaction between H+ and NH3 where H+ acts as an acid and ammonia as a base.
Molecules in which the central atom has incomplete octel for example:
Simple cations can act as lewis acids all cations act as lewis acids since they are deficient in electrons however,cations such as NA+,K+,CA2, ions.
Neutral species having at least one lone pair of electrons, for ammonia ,amines,alcohols etc.
Negatively charge d species or anions for example choride, organic ,hudroxide ions etc act as lewis bases.
is process of heating concentrated are to high temperature in axcess of air following reaction occure in this:
Ammonia is prepared by the harber’s process one volume of nitrogen and three volumes of hydrogen is passed over iron catalyst at 450C and 200 at m pressure.
Name : Deise oil , fuel oil
Composition: C13 to C15 , C15 to C18
Boiling range: 250 to 350 C 350 to 400C
Petrolium ether is used in dry cleaning it is composed of C5 to C7
The earthly and other impurities associated with the minerals are known as gangue.
The process of extraction of a metal in a pure state on a larger scale its one by physical or chemical means is called metallurgy.
Forth floating process is based on the welting characteristic of the one and the gangue particles with oil and water.
Urea is nitrogenous fertilizers it has number of applications irragriculature.
The metal is isolated from the concentration are by chemical reduction or electrolytic process.
Slag is mixture of metal silicates and phosphates while cuprous sulphide and fercus sulphide from a mixture (Cu2s.feS).
The dissolved gasses escape out forming blister on the surface of solid copper.
It is formed by heating calcium carbonate :
CaCO3 (S)______ CaO(s)+CO2 (g)
Write two uses of kerosene oil?
Name: Kerosene oil
Composition C 10 to C 12
Boiling range: 170 to 250 C
Uses: It is used as domestic fuel and a special grade of it is used as jet fuel.
It prepared by mixing one volume N2 and three volumes of H2 in the presence of ion catalyst at 450°C and 200 atom.
The process of removal of gangue from the are is technically known as concentration and the purified are is called the concentrate.
Forth flotation process
Fertilizers supplement essential nutrients in the soil needed by all plants for healthy , vigorous growth.
Fuel oil is used is ships and industries to heat boilers and furnaces.
The raw materials for the manufacturing of urea are
Ammonia (NH3) Carbon dioxide (o2) ammonia is prepared by the harber’s process .
It is used to make explosives .
It is used In auto mobile system to reduce the NO 2 pollutant in exhaut gasses.
Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons it is formed by decomposition of dead animals buried under the earth’s crust.
The principle of fractional distillation depends upon separation of substances depending upon their boiling points.
The solid natural materials founds beneath the earth surface which contains compounds of metals
Those minerals from which the metals are contracted commercially at a comparatively law cost with the minimum effort we call ones of the metal.
As fuel as such in the from of LPG used of production of carbon black it is used to produce hydrogen gas needed to form ammonia NH3.
Petroleum I extracted by distillation holes into earth crust where oil is found.
The four fractions of residual