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Organic compounds are essential for health that must be supplies in small amont in diet are called vitamins.
The vitamins which dissolve in facts are called fat soluble vitamins.If these vitamins are taken In large quantity, they accumulate in the body and cause diseases. For example, accumulation of vitamin D in the body cause bone pain and bone like deposit in the kidney. However their deficiency also causes diseases .Water soluble vitamins:
The vitamins that dissolve in water are called water soluble vitamins these vitamins are B complex and vitamins C water soluble vitamin are rapidly excreted from the body Hence these vitamins are not toxic even if taken in large quantity However their deficiency cause s diseases. Vitamins B complex are needed for healthy skin good vision a healthy nervous system and the formation of red blood cells. Enrich grain products which grains are good sources of B complex ,The best sources of vitamins C are citrus fruits and red and green sessors.
Sources of carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates range from simple to complex ones they have varid sources and uses sources of simple sugars e.g glucose fructose and galactose are fruits vegetables honey and cereals.
Disaccharides are sucrose lactose and maltose, sources is found in sugar beet sugar cane and fruits.
Lactose consisting of glucose and galactose is the main sugar in milk and dairy product.
Glucose+ galactose __________ lactose
Maltose a disaccharides of two glucose molecules in found in cereals.
Glucose +glucose________ maltose
Polysaccharides are starch and cellulose starch is found in cereal crops wheat barley maize rice etc,cellulose cotton is pure cellulose.
Uses of carbohydrates:
Beside energy providing they also provide the following to our body.
They regulate the amount of sugar level in our body low sugar level in body result in hypoglycemia.
They provide essential nutrients for bacteria in intestinal tract that helps in digestion.
Dietary fiber help to keep the bowel functioning property .
Fiber helps in lowering of cholesterol level and regulates blood pressure.
Carbohydrates protect our muscles from cremsing.
Sources and uses of proteins:
Proteins make up more 50% of the dry weight of animals. each protein has it source and carries out of a specific function sources and uses of proteins are as follows:
Sources of animals proteins are meat, mutton, chicken, fish and eggs. These are used a food by human beings as they are essential for the formation of protoplasm.
Enzymes are proteins:
Enzymes are proteins that are produced by the living cells they catalyze the chemical
Reaction taking place in the bodies. They are highly specific and have extraordinary efficiency.
Many enzymes are used as drugs. They control the bleeding and treat blood cancer.
Hides are proteins:
They are used to make leather by tanning leather is used to make shoes jackets sports,etc.
Proteins in bones:
Proteins are found in bones when bones are heated they give gelatin.gelatin is used to make bakery items.
Plants also synthesize proteins such as beans etc these are used as food.
Lipids are macromolecule made up of fatty acids. Lipids include oils and fats. Oils and fats are esters of long chain carboxylic acids with glycerol ,these esters are made of three fatty acids therefore they are called triglycerides. General formula of triglycerides is as under.
Sources of uses:
Fats are oils are high energy foods, fats and oils are synthesized naturally by animal’s plants and marine organisms.
Animal’s fat is found in adipose tissue cells animals secret milk from which butter and ghee is obtained butter and ghee are used to cooking and frying bakery products and sweets animals fats are used in soap industry.
plant synthesize oils and store them in seeds such sun flower oil coconut oil, groundnut oil and corn oil. These oil are used as vegetables oils or ghee for cooking and other purposes.
Marine animals are salmon and whales are also source of oils. These oils are used as medicines e.g cod liver oil.
Monosaccharides are the simplest sugars which cannot be hrdrolyzed they consist of 3 to 9 carbons atom ,therefore they are classified according to the number of carbon atoms in their molecules or trioses,pentoses hexoses, and so seon .The important monosaccharides are hoxes like glucose and fructose etc.Glucoe is a pentahydroxy ketone having the open chain structures as follows and general formula C6 H12 O6.
CH2 OH CH2 OH
Monosaccharides are white crystalline solids.
They are soluble in water and have sweet taste.
They cannot be hrdrolyzed ,they are reducing in nature therefore these are called reducing sugars.
Oligosaccharides gives 2 to 9 units of monosaccharides on hydrolysis therefore they are classified as disaccharides ,trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, etc, depending upon the number of units they produce on hydrolysis.The most important oligoasaccharides are disaccharides like sucrose.On hydrolysis sucrose produces one unit glucose and one unit of fructose.
C12, H22, O11 +H2O C6,H12, O6+ C6,H12,O6
These carbohydrates are white crystalline solids.
Easily soluble in water.
They are also sweet In taste they may be reducing or non reducing.
The simplest sugar which cannot be decomposed on acid hydrolysis are called monosaccharides for example glucose etc.
Dietary fiber help to keep the bowel functioning property they provide essential nutrients for bacteria in intestinal tract that helps in digestion.
The remaining amino acids which cannotbe synthe sized by our bodies are called essential amino acids.
Proteins are used as meat egg etc, proteins are found in becomes which bones are heated they give gelation.
Fatty acids are building blocks of lipids they are long chain saturated or unsaturated carboxylic acids for example: palmitic acid ( C15 H13 COOH) stearic acid ( C17 H35 COOH) etc.
The sequence of nitrogeneous bases in DNA determines the proteins development in new cells the function of the double helix formation of DNA is to ensure that no disorder takes place DNA carries genes that controls the synthesis of RNA.
The vitamins that dissolve in water are called water soluble vitamins,B complex and vitamin C are water soluble vitamins.
Vitamins A is used to maintain the health of retina’s dark adaptation mechanism vitamin D is used for the absorption of calcium, which is essential for the maintenance of healthy bones.
DNA passes genetic information as instructions from generation to generation how to synthesize particular proteins from amino acids these instructons are genetic code of life.
RNA is consists of ribose sugar it is a single stranded molecule it is responsible for putting the genetic information to work in the cell build proteins its role is like a messenger.
Vitamins A: eggs, oils,fish, and fat.
Vitamins B: fish ,liver, oils, and fats etc.
Vitamins E: nuts , seeds vegetables , oils.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a single stranded molecule it is responsible for formation of proteins.
Lipids are used to build brain cells nerve cells and cell membranes marine oil are used as medicines e.g cod liver oil.
Ten amino acids which human body can be synthesized are called non essential amino acids.
They are lighter than water they are insoluble in water the yellow of fats arises due to the presence of keratin.
They are soluble in water they have sweet taste.
Proteins consist of carbon hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen.
Polysacchaides are amorphous solids. These are tasteless and insoluble in water they are non-reducing in nature.
Vegetable oil are trimester of glycerol and fatty acids of unsaturated long chains these oils are hydrogenated in the presence of Ni catalyst at 250- to from vegetable ghee
Vegetable oil +H2 Ni_______ vegetable ghee/ 250-300°C
Plamitic acid (C15 H31 COOH)
Stearic aicd ( C17 H35 COOH)
Carbohydrates provide 17KJ of energy per gram we take carbohydrates as food long chain of starch is broken down into simple sugar by digestive enzymes the glucose is absorbed directly by small intestine into the blood stream blood stream transports the glucose to its place of use.
The general formula of amino acid is
R____ CH ____C____OH
DNA’s structure was discovered by J.waston and F.crick in 1953.
margarine can be made from any of a wide variety of animal or vegetable fats mixed with skin milk salted emulsifiers.