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An important facility for 9th class students preparing for short questions biology 9th class chapter 4 of BISE. Get hundreds of questions to prepare and get better marks in 9th biology
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Our database contains a total of 0 questions for biology Short Questions. You’ll prepare using this huge databank.

Question: 1
What is function of cytoskeleton?
Answer: 1
1-206
The function of cytoskeleton is to hold the cell shape or to change cell shape.
Question: 2
What is chemical composition of cell membrane.
Answer: 2
2-206
Chemically, cell membrane is normally composed of proteins and lipids with small quantities of carbohydrates.
Question: 3
What was contribution of Lamarck in cell theory?
Answer: 3
3-206
In 1809 , De Lamarck proposed that nobody can have life if its parts are not cellular tissue or not formed by cellular tissue.
Question: 4
What is light microscope?
Answer: 4
4-206
The microscope which uses visible light through specimen to produce image.
Question: 5
What are characteristics of light microscope?
Answer: 5
5-206
It can magnify objects only about 1500 times. Its magnification is 1500 X. Resolving power of light microscope is 0.2 micrometer , So light microscope cannot distinguish objects smaller than 0.2 micrometer.
Question: 6
What are the function of leucoplasts and chromoplasts?
Answer: 6
6-206
Leucoplasts. They contain pigments associated with bright colors and are present in the cells of flower petals and fruits. Their function is to give colors to these parts and thus help in pollination and dispersal of fruit. Chromoplasts: Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis in eukaryotes. They contain chlorophyll and associated pigments. These pigments are present in the thylakoids of grana.
Question: 7
What is source of illumination of electron microscope?
Answer: 7
7-206
In electron microscope, object and lens is places in vacuum chamber. And a beam of electrons is passed though object which can be reflected or refracted through object.
Question: 8
What is meant by hypertonic and hypotonic solutions?
Answer: 8
8-206
Hypertonic solution:A Hypertonic solution has relatively more solute. Hypotonic solutions: A hypotonic solution has relatively less solute.
Question: 9
What are characteristics of cell wall?
Answer: 9
9-206
i. Cell wall is non -living structure. ii. It is strong component. iii.Located outside plasma membrane iv. Provides shape, strength, support and protection to cell.
Question: 10
What is composition of cytoplasm/
Answer: 10
10-206
It is a semi viscous and semi transparent substance containing organic molecules & inorganic salts completely or partially dissolved in it. Its function to act site for various reaction.
Question: 11
State the cell theory.
Answer: 11
11-206
Cell theory, in its modern form, includes the following principles. i. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. ii. Cells are the smallest living things, the basic unit of organization of all organisms. iii. Cells arise only by divisions in previously existing cells.
Question: 12
What is chemical composition of cell wall?
Answer: 12
12-206
Outer layer of cell wall is called primary wall consist of cellulose. Inner layer of wall consists of lignin and called is secondary cell wall.
Question: 13
What are plastid? Name their kind.
Answer: 13
13-206
Plastids are also membrane bounded organelle present in plants and photosynthetic protist. Types: There are three types of plastids. i. Chloroplast ii. Chromoplast iii. Leukoplast
Question: 14
What is function of cytoplasm?
Answer: 14
14-206
i.It provides space for the proper functioning of organelles. ii. It acts as a site for various biochemical reactions such as glycolysis which occur is cytoplasm.
Question: 15
Differentiate between diffusion and filtration.
Answer: 15
15-206
Diffusion. i. The movement of molecules from higher concentration to lower concentration across membrane is called diffusion . ii. Gas exchange in gills and lungs operates by diffusion.
Question: 16
What is composition of centriole?
Answer: 16
16-206
Each centriole which is present only in Animal cells, are made of nine triplets of microtubules made up of tubulin protein.
Question: 17
Differentiate between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell.
Answer: 17
17-206
Eukaryotic cell: The organism having eukaryotic cell is called as eukaryotes. Eukaryotic cells have prominent nucleus.
Question: 18
What is function of mitochondria?
Answer: 18
18-206
Mitochondria are sites of aerobic respiration and are also called powerhouse of the cell. They prepare energy for cell.
Question: 19
What is the importance of diffusion?
Answer: 19
19-206
It is one principle method of movement of molecules across cell membrane. i. CO2 and O2 molecule can cross cell membrane by diffusion. ii. Gas exchange in gills and lungs operates by this process.
Question: 20
Explain functions of lysosome.
Answer: 20
20-206
A lysosome fuse with vacuole that contain targeted materials and its enzymes break down the material.
Question: 21
What is difference between meristematic and permanent tissues?
Answer: 21
21-206
Meristematic tissues. 1. Meristematic tissues have cells which have ability to divide. 2. It is of two types. i. Apical meristems ii. Lateral meristems 3. They help in growth
Question: 22
Write down the function of xylem and phloem tissues.
Answer: 22
22-206
Xylem Tissues: Xylem tissues are responsible for the conduction of water from roots to the aerial parts of plant. It also consists of secondary cell which is hard due to the presence of lignin so it is also function to support the plant body.
Question: 23
What is chromosome?
Answer: 23
23-206
These are specialized structure composed of DNA and proteins which is visible only during cell divison.
Question: 24
Differentiate between primary growth and secondary growth.
Answer: 24
24-206
Primary growth.The total increase in length of plant is called primary growth. It is occurred by apical meristems.
Question: 25
Why cell membrane is called semi permeable membrane?
Answer: 25
25-206
Cell membrane functions as a semi permeable barrier, allowing a very few molecules across it while fencing the majority of chemicals inside cell. In this way cell membrane maintenance the internal composition of cell.
Question: 26
Describe the composition of cell wall of fungi and prokaryotes?
Answer: 26
26-206
Cell Wall of fungi:Chitin is present in the cell wall of fungi
Prokaryotes:prokaryotes have a cell wall composed of peptidoglycan that is a complex of amino acid and sugar
Question: 27
Write the function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Answer: 27
27-206
It is involved int he lipid metabolism . it is involved in transport of materials from one part of cell to other.
Question: 28
Define Osmosis.
Answer: 28
28-206
It is the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from solution of lesser solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration filtration.
Question: 29
Describe one achievement of each Robert Hook and Robert Brown?
Answer: 29
29-206
Robert Hooke was British Scientific in 1655 first time the describe cell and Robert Brown was a British was a botanist in 1831 he discoverd nucleus in the cell
Question: 30
Write down the names of two type of simple tissues.
Answer: 30
30-206
There are two types of simple tissues. i. Meristematic tissue i.. Permanent tissues.
Question: 31
Differentiate between diffusion and osmosis.
Answer: 31
31-206
Diffusion: It is the movement of molecules from an area of higher solute concentration to the ara of lower concentration i.e. along concentration gradient.
Question: 32
What is meant by Nucleoid?
Answer: 32
32-206
These are broken pieces of chromosomes or DNA inside cell.
Question: 33
What is plasmolysis?
Answer: 33
33-206
In a hypertonic environment of plant cell loses water and cytoplasm shrinks. The shrinking of cytoplasm is called plasmolysis.
Question: 34
Write the name of any four cell organelles?
Answer: 34
34-206
  1. Mitochondria
  2. Ribosomes
  3. Lysosomes
  4. Plastide
Question: 35
Define Ribosomes, write their function and structure.
Answer: 35
35-206
These are the tiny granular structures that are either floating freely in cytoplasm or are bound to endoplasmic reticulum.These ae the sites for protein synthesis. These are made of almost equal amount of protein and ribosomal RNA.
Question: 36
What is meant by passive diffusion.
Answer: 36
36-206
This is type of diffusion in which molecules diffuse from membrane slowly without the expenditure of energy called passive diffusion.
Question: 37
What is Cytoskeleton?
Answer: 37
37-206
Cytoskeleton is a network of microfilaments and microtubules. Microtubules are made up of tubulin protein and are used by cell to hold their shapes.
Question: 38
Define turgor pressure and turgor.
Answer: 38
38-206
In hypotonic solution the outward pressure on cell wall exerted by internal water in known as turgor pressure and the phenomenon is turgor.
Question: 39
Differentiate between Endocytosis and Exocytosis.
Answer: 39
39-206
Endocytosis: It is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky materials by the infolding of the cell membrane. This process lost the part of cell membrane there are two forms endocytosis. i. Phagocytosis ii. Pinocytosis
Question: 40
Write the function of guard cell.
Answer: 40
40-206
Stomata in leaf epidermis are surrounded by guard cells. During daytime guards cells are making glucose and so are hypertonic than their nearby epidermis shape and a pore is created between them. At night when there is low solute concentration in guard cells, water leaves them and they become flaccid. In this form both guard cells rest against one another and the opening is closed.
Question: 41
Give two functions perform by cell membrane.
Answer: 41
41-206
Cell membrane functions as a semi permeable barrier, allowing a very few molecules across it while fencing the majority of chemicals inside cell. IN this way, cell membrane maintain s the internal composition of cell
Question: 42
What are Leucoplasts?
Answer: 42
42-206
Leucoplasts are the colourless and store strach, proteins and lipids. they are present in the cell of those parts where food is stored
Question: 43
What is microscopy? And who discover the fist microscope?
Answer: 43
43-206
The use of microscope is known as microscopy .The fist compound microscope was developed by Zacharias Janssen, in Holland in 1595. It was simply a tube with lenses at each end and its magnification ranges from 3X to 9X
Question: 44
Differentiate between primary and secondary cell walls.
Answer: 44
44-206
Primary cell: The outer layer of plant cell wall is called primary cell wall and cellulose is major component in it.
Question: 45
What is meant by cell wall ?
Answer: 45
45-206
Cell wall living organisms and strong component of cell located outside plasma membrane. Not all living organisms have cell wall around their cell.
Question: 46
Structure and function of Golgi apparatus and lysosomes.
Answer: 46
46-206
Golgi apparatus.An Italian physician camillo golgi discovered a set of flattened sacs in cell. In this set, many cisternac are stacked over each other. The complete set of cistermac is called Golgi apparatus of Golgi complex.
Question: 47
What is plastids ?
Answer: 47
47-206
Plastids:plastids are membrane-bound organelles that only occur in plant and photosynthetic Protists.
Question: 48
What is centrosome?
Answer: 48
48-206
In animal cell two centrioles are present to the exterior of nuclear envelope. Two Centrioles are collectively called centrosome.Their function is to help in the formation of spindle fibers during cell division.
Question: 49
Define Contribution of Matthias Schleiden?
Answer: 49
49-206
Contribution of Matthias Schleiden:In 1838, a German botanist Matthias schleiden studied plant tissue and mad the first statement of cell theory.
Question: 50
Define Contribution of Louis pasture ?
Answer: 50
50-206
Contribution of Louis pasture:In 1862 Louis pasture provided the experimental proof of this idea
Question: 51
What is difference between cell membrane and plasma membrane.
Answer: 51
51-206
Cell membrane: When we talk about all the membrane of a cell, we say them as cell membranes.
Question: 52
What is Reverse Osmosis?
Answer: 52
52-206
In advanced water treatment technologies, membrane based filtration systems are used in this process, semi permeable membranes separate salts from water.
Question: 53
Write down the principal of cell theory ?
Answer: 53
53-206
  1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells
  2. cell is the smallest living things cell is the basic unit of organization of all organisms
  3. Cell arise only by division in previously exciting cells
Question: 54
Describe function of Vacuoles in a cell?
Answer: 54
54-206
  1. Vacuoles in plant cell provides turgidity.
  2. Many cell take materials from outside in the form of food Vacuoles.
Question: 55
What is meant by resolution and Magnification?
Answer: 55
55-206
Magnification:Magnification is the increase in the apparent size of an objects and it is an important factor in microscope.
Resolution:Resolution or resolving power is the minimum distance at which two object can be seen as separate object
Question: 56
Define Microscope andMagnification ?
Answer: 56
56-206
Microscope:Microscope is the use of microscope,
Magnification: is the increases in the apparent size of an object and it is an important factor in the microscope
Question: 57
Difference between microfilaments and microtubules?
Answer: 57
57-206
Microtubules:
  1. Microtubules are made up of tubulin protein.
  2. Microtubules maintain the shape of cell
Microfilaments:
  1. Microfilaments are made up of Actin protein
  2. microfilaments are finer than microtubutes.
Question: 58
Define transmission electron Microscope?
Answer: 58
58-206
Transmission electron Microscope electron are transmitted through the specimen. it is used to study the internal cell structure.
Question: 59
What is function of lysosomes ?
Answer: 59
59-206
Lysosomes contain strong digestive enzymes and work for the break down of food and waste materials within cell.
Question: 60
What is meant by resolving power of a microscope ?
Answer: 60
60-206
Resolution or resolving power is the minimum distance at which two objects can be seen as separate objects.
Question: 61
Which is called Cytoplasm ?
Answer: 61
61-206
Cytoplasm is the semi-viscous and semi-viscous and semi-transparent substances between plasma membrane and nuclear envelope.
Question: 62
Describe two function of Cytoplasm?
Answer: 62
62-206
  1. The Cytoplasm of the cell provide space for the proper functioning of the organelles.
  2. It act as the site for various metabolic reaction, for example, Glycolysis
Question: 63
Define primary wall ?
Answer: 63
63-206
The outer layer of the plant cell wall is known as primary wall and cellulose is the most common chemical in it.
Question: 64
Define semi permeable membrane ?
Answer: 64
64-206
Plasma membrane is called semi permeable membrane as it allows only selective molecular to pass out of the cell and keep the most of the molecular inside the cell.
Question: 65
Write the name of type electron microscope ?
Answer: 65
65-206
  1. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
  2. Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM)
Question: 66
What is meat by Hypertonic ?
Answer: 66
66-206
A solution having relatively more solute is called Hypertonic solution.
Question: 67
Describe two function of cell membrane ?
Answer: 67
67-206
  1. Cell membrane helps in the maintenance of cells internal composition.
  2. Cell membrane also sense chemical massages and can identify other cells.
Question: 68
Define plasmodesmata?
Answer: 68
68-206
There are pores in the cell wall of adjacent cells, through which their cytoplasm is connected. These pores are called plasmodesmata.
Question: 69
What are chromoplasts?
Answer: 69
69-206
The second type of plastides in plant cells are bight colours and are present in the cells of flower petals and furits
Question: 70
What is difference between Cell Membrane and cell wall ?
Answer: 70
70-206
Cell Membrane:Cell membrane is a thin and elastic membrane covering the cytoplasm
Cell Wall:Cell wall is a non living and strong component of cell which is present outside the cell
Question: 71
Define Reverse osmosis ?
Answer: 71
71-206
In advance water-treatment technologies membrane-based filtration system are used. In this process, semi-permeable membrane separate salts from water called reverse osmosis.
Question: 72
Define secondary wall ?
Answer: 72
72-206
Some plants cell, such as xylem cells,also have secondary walls on the inner side of the primary wall. it is much thicker and contain lignin and others chemicals.
Question: 73
Define Cristae ?
Answer: 73
73-206
  1. Cristae are the folding of inner mitochondrial membrane
  2. Cristae are the present in mitochondrial
  3. Electron transport chain in Cristae
Question: 74
Define Cristernae?
Answer: 74
74-206
  1. Cristernae are the flattened structure of Golgi apparatus
  2. Cristernae are present in Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic.
Question: 75
Write the name of any two subcellular particles ?
Answer: 75
75-206
Prions and viroids are a cellular practical like viruses. they are also known as sub cellular particles.
Question: 76
Write function of Mitochondria ?
Answer: 76
76-206
Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respiration and are the major energy production centres
Question: 77
What is sclerenchyma tissue?
Answer: 77
77-206
Sclerenchyma tissue are composed of cell with rigid secondary cell walls. their cell walls are hundred with lignin, which is the main chemical component of wood
Question: 78
What is the role of nucleus in a cell ?
Answer: 78
78-206
Nucleus contains hereditary material which not only controls all activities of a cell but also responsible for transmission of character to next generation.
Question: 79
Write down name of two organelles found in eukaryotic cells ?
Answer: 79
79-206
  1. Mitochondria
  2. Ribosomes
Question: 80
Write a note on centrioles?
Answer: 80
80-206
Animals and many unicellular organisms have hollow and cylindrical organelles known as centrioles. Each centriole consists on nine triplets of microtubules.
Question: 81
What is difference between cell membrane and plasma membrane ?
Answer: 81
81-206
There are no difference between cell membrane and plasma membrane. Both are alternative name of each other
Question: 82
Where Ribosomes ?
Answer: 82
82-206
Ribosomes are tiny granular structure that are either floating in cytoplasm or bound to endoplasmic reticulum. they play role in protein synthesis
Question: 83
Write the names of electron microscopes which and used by biologists
Answer: 83
83-206
Biologists use two types of electron Microscopes as following
Transmission Electron Microscope TEM
Scanning Electron Microscope SEM
Question: 84
Define simple tissue ?
Answer: 84
84-206
  1. Simple tissue are tissue present in plants and are the composed of only one type of cell
  2. Simple tissue are of further two type as following
  • Meristematic tissue
  • Permanent tissue
Question: 85
Where chromosomes found ?
Answer: 85
85-206
Chromosomes are found in nucleoplasm. chromosome are composed of doexy ribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins.
Question: 86
Describe two functions of cell membrance
Answer: 86
86-206
Following are two functions of cell membrane
Cell membrane helps in the Maintenance of cells internal composition
Cell membrane also sense chemical massage's and can identify other cells
Question: 87
In which fields did gogli win nobal prize in 1906?
Answer: 87
87-206
In 1906, Gogli was awarded Noble prize of physiology and Medicine.
Question: 88
What is meant by resolving power of a microscope
Answer: 88
88-206
Resolution or resolving power is the minimum distance at which two objects can be seen as separate objects It is the measure of the clarity of an image
Question: 89
What is lysosomes ?
Answer: 89
89-206
Lysosomes contain strong digestive enzymes and work for the breakdown of food and waste materials within cell.
Question: 90
What is the function of guard cells?
Answer: 90
90-206
Beam shaped cells which controls the opening and closing of stomata in a green plants leaves.
Question: 91
Define plasmodesmata
Answer: 91
91-206
There are pores in the cell wall of adjacent cells, through which their cytoplasm is connected These pores are called plasmodesmata
Question: 92
What is the function of Leucoplasts and Chormeplasts ?
Answer: 92
92-206
Function of Leucoplasts:These are colourless and store protein and lipids
Function ofChormeplasts:They are the sites of photosynthesis in eukaryotes
Question: 93
Define Chromoplast and leucoplast ?
Answer: 93
93-206
Chromoplast: The second type of plastides in plant cell are chromoplasts. they contain pigments associated with the bright colours and are present in the cell of flower petals and fruits
leucoplast:leucoplast are the colourless and store strach protein and lipids.

Question: 94
Define Plasmolysis?
Answer: 94
94-206
Plasmolysis is the shrinkage of cytoplasm due to exosmosis of water is called Plasmolysis
Question: 95
What is nuclear envelope
Answer: 95
95-206
Nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane that is called nuclear envelope
Nuclear envelop contains many tiny pores which makes it a semi-permeable membrane
Nuclear envelope surrounds a granular fluid called Nucleoplasm
Question: 96
Define Stroma ?
Answer: 96
96-206
The stack of thylakoids is called granum grana float in the inner fluid of chloroplast
Question: 97
Define xylem and phloem?
Answer: 97
97-206
Xylem tissue is responsible for the transport of water and dissolved substances from roots to the aerial parts
Question: 98
Write down about leucoplast ?
Answer: 98
98-206
Leucoplast:Is a type of plastid chloroplast are green color
Function ofLeucoplast:These are colourless and store Starch Protein and lipid
Question: 99
Define Thylakoids ?
Answer: 99
99-206
They are sacs like structure formed by the inner membrane of chloroplast present in plant its sack is known as granum
Question: 100
Why endoplasmic reticulum is called rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Answer: 100
100-206
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is so named because of its rough appearance duet numerous ribosomes that are attached to it Due to the presence of ribosomes RER serves a function in protein synthesis
Question: 101
What is nuclear envelope ?
Answer: 101
101-206
Nuclear is surrounding by a double membrane that is called nuclear membrane.
Question: 102
Where chromosomes found
Answer: 102
102-206
Chromosome are found in nucleoplasm. Chromosomes are composed of deoxy ribonucleic acid DNA and proteins
Question: 103
Write function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Answer: 103
103-206
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  1. It is involed in lipid metabolism and in the transport of materials from one parts of the cell to the other
  2. It also detoxifies the harmful effect of chemical that have entered
Question: 104
Define Osmosis ?
Answer: 104
104-206
Osmosis is the movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from a solution of lesser solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration.
Question: 105
What is difference between Diffusion and osmosis ?
Answer: 105
105-206
Diffusion:Diffusion is the movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration towards the area of lower concentration.
Osmosis:osmosis is the movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from a solution of lesser solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration.
Question: 106
What is difference between Thylakoids and stroma
Answer: 106
106-206
Thylakoids: Like mitochondria Chloroplast is also bound by a double membrane
The outer membrane is smooth while the inner membrane gives rise to sacs called thylakoids.
Question: 107
What is Exocytose ?
Answer: 107
107-206
It is the process through which bulky material is exported.
This process adds new membrane which replace the part of cell membrane los during endosytosis.
Question: 108
How cells work as an open system
Answer: 108
108-206
A cell works as an open system i.e it takes in substances needed for its metabolic activities through its cell membrane Then it performs the metabolic processes membrane Then it performs the metabolic processes assigned to it Products and by-products are formed in metabolism Cell either utilizes the products or transports them to other cells The by-products are either stored or are excreted out of cell
Question: 109
Define Facilitated Diffusion ?
Answer: 109
109-206
Many molecules do not diffuse freely across cell membrane because of their size or change. such molecules are taken into or out of the cell with the help of transport-protein present in the cell membrane
Question: 110
What is Exocytose
Answer: 110
110-206
It is the process through which bulky materials is exported
This process adds new membrane which replaces the part of cell membrane los during endocytosis
Question: 111
Write name of types of Simple Tissues ?
Answer: 111
111-206
  • Meristematic tissue
  • Permanent tissue
Question: 112
Write difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes ?
Answer: 112
112-206
Prokaryotes:
  1. They have no prominent nucleus.
  2. Ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic cell
Eukaryotes:
  1. They have prominent nucleus in their cell.
  2. Ribosomes are lager than prokoryotes.
Question: 113
What us the difference between the magnification and resolution of a microscope
Answer: 113
113-206
Magnification: Magnification is the increase in the apparent size of an object and it is an important factor in microscopy
Question: 114
How active transports is different from passive transport ?
Answer: 114
114-206
Passive transport is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration energy is not use in this process where as active transport is the movement of molecules from an area of lower concentration and this movement require energy in the form of ATP.
Question: 115
Define Turgor pressure
Answer: 115
115-206
When vacuole increases in size cytoplasm presses firmly against the interior of cell wall, which expands a little Due to strong cell wall, plant cell does not rupture but instead becomes rigid In this condition the outward pressure on cell wall exerted by internal water is known as turgor pressure and the phenomena on is know as turgor
Question: 116
How cell work as an open system ?
Answer: 116
116-206
Cell work as an open system it takes in substance needed for it metabolic activities through its cell membrane.
Question: 117
Define sodium Potassium pump
Answer: 117
117-206
Sodium potassium pump: In this process, carrier proteins of cell membrane use energy to move the molecules against the concentration gradient
Question: 118
What do you know about Fluid Mosaic Model
Answer: 118
118-206
According to Fluid music model, there is a lipid bilayer in which the protein molecules are embedded
The lipid bilayer gives fluidity and elasticity to membrane
Small amounts of carbohydrates are also present in cell membrane These are joined with proteins or lipids of membrane
In Eukaryotic Cells, cholesterol is also present in lipid bilayer
Question: 119
Define Support tissue and write name of types of support tissues
Answer: 119
119-206
Support tissues provide strength and flexibility to plants It is of two types
Question: 120
How are smooth muscles ?
Answer: 120
120-206
Smooth muscles are found in the wall of alimentary canal, urinary bladder, blood vessels etc. they contain smooth muscle They are responsible for the movement of substance
Question: 121
What is filteration ?
Answer: 121
121-206
Filtration is a process by which small molecule are forced to move across semi-permeable membrane with the aid of hydrostatic pressure or blood pressure.
Question: 122
What is functionof epidermaltissue in plant.
Answer: 122
122-206
Epidermal tissue are composed of a single layer of cells and they cover plant body. They act as a barrier between environment and internal plants tissues.
Question: 123
Define passive diffusion ?
Answer: 123
123-206
Movement of molecules from an area of its high concentration to an area of its low concentration is called passive diffusion.
Question: 124
Name any two types of epithelial tissue?
Answer: 124
124-206
  1. Cuboidal epithelium
  2. Columnar epithelium
Question: 125
Describe the composition of cell wall of Fungi and prokaryotes
Answer: 125
125-206
Cell wall of fungi: Chitin is present in the cell wall of fungi
Question: 126
What do you mean by inter-catary meristem
Answer: 126
126-206
Inter-calary meristem is in the form of small patches among the mature tissues These are common in grasses and help in the regeneration of parts removed herbivores etc
Question: 127
What is the role of nucleus in a cell
Answer: 127
127-206
Nucleus contains hereditary material which not only controls all activities of a cell but also responsible for transmission of character to next generation
Question: 128
What is endoplasmic Reticulum?
Answer: 128
128-206
Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of introduce channels that extend from cell membrane to nuclear envelop.
Question: 129
Define Microscopy
Answer: 129
129-206
Microscopy Microcopy is the use of microscope
Magnification: Magnification: Magnification is the increase in the apparent size of an object and it is an important factor is microscopy
Question: 130
What is difference between primary cell and secondary cells
Answer: 130
130-206
Plants cell have A variety of chemicals in their cell walls the outer layer cell wall is known as cell wall
Question: 131
What is Exocytose?
Answer: 131
131-206
In the process through which bulky material is exported.
This process adds news membrane which replace the part of cell membrane lost during endocytosis.
Question: 132
What is Endoplasmic Reticulum
Answer: 132
132-206
Endoplasmic reticulum is a network of interconnected channels that extends from cell membrane to nuclear envelop The network exists in two forms
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum'
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Question: 133
Write name of any two subcellular particles
Answer: 133
133-206
Prions and viroid's are acellular particles like viruses They are also know as sub cellular particles w.r.t evolution
Question: 134
What is meant by cell wall
Answer: 134
134-206
Cell wall is a non-living and a strong component of cell, located outside plasma membrane Not all living organisms have cell wall around their cells e.g animals and many animal like protists do not have cell wall Prokaryotes and plants like protists have cell wall is present in all plants
Question: 135
Define Sodium-potassium pump ?
Answer: 135
135-206
Sodium-potassium pump:In this process carrier protein of cell membrane use energy to move the molecules against the concentration gradient.
Question: 136
Write diffeence between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Answer: 136
136-206
Prokaryotes: They have no prominent nucleus
Ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotic cells,
Question: 137
What is meant by pinocytosis?
Answer: 137
137-206
In pinocytosis cell takes in liquid in the form of droplets. pinocytosis is a type of endocytosis.
Question: 138
What is difference between primary and secondary wall
Answer: 138
138-206
Primary Wall: The outer layer of the plant cell wall is known as primary wall and cellulose is the most common chemical in it
Question: 139
What is Endocytosis?
Answer: 139
139-206
Endocytosis is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky material by the infolding of cell membrane.
Question: 140
What are the functions of Leucoplasts and Chloroplast
Answer: 140
140-206
Leucoplasts is the of plastid chloroplast are green color
Functions of Leucoplast: These are colourless and store starch proteins and lipids
Question: 141
Define filtration?
Answer: 141
141-206
Filtration is the process by which small molecules are forced to move accrosssemi permeable membrane with the aid of hydrostatic pressure or blood pressure.
Question: 142
What is filteration
Answer: 142
142-206
Filtration is a process by which small molecules are forced to move across semi-permeable membrane with the aid of hydrostatic water pressure or blood pressure
Question: 143
What are thetype of connective tissue?
Answer: 143
143-206
Connective tissue serves a connecting function. It supports and other tissue. Unlike epithelial tissue, connective tissue has cell scattered throughout an extracellular matrix.
Question: 144
What are the contributions of Rudolf Virchow and Louis Pasteur in the formation of Cell Theory
Answer: 144
144-206
Contribution of Rudolf Virchow: In 1855 Rudolf Virchow a German physician proposed important extension of cell theory He proposed that all living cells arise from preexisting cells
Question: 145
Define support tissue?
Answer: 145
145-206
Support tissue provide strength and flexibility to plants it is of two type
  1. Collenchyma tissue
  2. Sclerenchyma Tissue
Question: 146
Differentiate between Endocytosis and Exocytosis ?
Answer: 146
146-206
Endocytosis:Is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky material by the infolding of cell membrane.
Exocytosis:It is the process through which bulky material is exported from the cell.
Question: 147
Define diffusion?
Answer: 147
147-206
Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration i.e along a concentration gradient.
Question: 148
Write the names of any four cell organelles
Answer: 148
148-206
Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Plastids
Question: 149
Define diffusion ?
Answer: 149
149-206
Diffusion is the random movement of solute molecules from their lower concentration.Energy is not required this process.
Question: 150
What down names of two organelles found in eukaryotic cells
Answer: 150
150-206
Mitochondria, Ribosomes
Question: 151
Define Permanent tissues. Name its type?
Answer: 151
151-206
Permanent tissue originate from meristematic tissue the cell of these tissue do not have the ability to divided
  1. Epidermal tissue
  2. Ground tissues
  3. Support tissues
Question: 152
Write two functions of Centrosome
Answer: 152
152-206
Centrioles: Animals and many unicellular organisms have hollow and cylindrical organelles known as centrioles Each centriole consists on nine triplets of microtubules made up of tubulin protein
Question: 153
What do you mean by inter catary meristem ?
Answer: 153
153-206
inter catary meristem is in the form of small patches among the mature tissues. these are common in grasses and help in the regeneration of parts removed by herbivores etc.
Question: 154
Define Permanent tissues
Answer: 154
154-206
Permanent tissues originate from meristematic tissue The cells of these tissues do not have the ability to divided There are the following types
Question: 155
Which is called called Cytoplasm
Answer: 155
155-206
Cytoplasm is the semi-viscous and semi-transparent substance between plasma membrane cell membrane and nuclear envelope It contains water in which many organic molecules proteins carbohydrates lipids and inorganic salts are completely or partially dissolved
Question: 156
Define Transmission Electron Microscope
Answer: 156
156-206
Transmission Electron Microscope: In transmission electron microscope electrons are transmitted through the specimen It is used to study the internal cell structure
Question: 157
What are Leucoplasts
Answer: 157
157-206
Leucoplast are colorless and store starch proteins and lipids They are present in the cell of those parts where food is stored
Question: 158
Write main points of cell theory
Answer: 158
158-206
Cell theory includes the following principles
All organisms are composed of one or more cells
Cell is the smallest living things cell is the basic nit of organization of all organisms
Cells arise only by divisions in previously existing cells
Question: 159
Describe function of thylakoids
Answer: 159
159-206
Thylakoids: They are sacs like structures formed by the inner membrane of chloroplast present in plant Its stack is known as granum which float in the inner fluid or chloroplast i.e. stroma
Question: 160
Differentiate between cristae and cisternae
Answer: 160
160-206
Cristae are the folding's of inner mitochondrial membrane
Cristae are present in mitochondria
Question: 161
Differentiate between phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
Answer: 161
161-206
In phagocytosis cell takes in solid material while in the pinocytosis cell takes liquid in the form of droplets.
Question: 162
What is meant by Mathias Schiele and Theodor Schwann
Answer: 162
162-206
Contribution of Matthias Schleiden: In 1838 a German botanist Matthias Schleiden studied plant tissues and made the first statement of the cell theory He stated that all plants are aggregates of individual cells which are fully independent
Question: 163
What is difference between cell wall and cell membrane
Answer: 163
163-206
Cell Membrane: Cell membrane is a thin and ealstic membrane covering the cytoplasm
Cell membrane made up of lipids and proteins
Question: 164
Describe one achievement of each Robert Hook and Robert Brown
Answer: 164
164-206
Robert Hooke was British scientist in 1655 first time he describe cell and Robert Brown was a British botanist in 1831 he discovered nucleus in the cell
Question: 165
What is the function of lysosomes in the cell
Answer: 165
165-206
Function: Lysosomes contain strong digestive enzymes and work for the breakdown digestion of food and waste materials within cell During its function a lysosome fuses with the vacuole that contains the targeted material and its enzymes break down the material
Question: 166
Define Plasmolysis
Answer: 166
166-206
Plasmolysis is the shrinkage of cytoplasm due to exostosis of water is called plasmolysis
Question: 167
How Robert Hooke introduced cell
Answer: 167
167-206
Cells ere first described by a British scientist Robert Hooke in 1665 He used his self made light microscope to examine a thin slice of cork Hooks observed a honey comb of tiny empty compartments He called the compartments in cork as Cellulate His this term has come to us a cell
Question: 168
What is difference between cell membrane and plasma membrane
Answer: 168
168-206
There is no difference between cell membrane and plasma membrane Both are alternative names of each other
Question: 169
What is tissue?
Answer: 169
169-206
Group of cells of the same type ding a particular job the glandulartissue, muscular tissue.nervous tissue,etc.
Question: 170
Define reverse osmosis?
Answer: 170
170-206
In this process, semipermeable membranes separate salt from water reverse osmosis
Question: 171
What is golgiapparatus?
Answer: 171
171-206
An Italian physician CamilloGolgi discovered a set of flattened sacs in cell in this set many cisternae are stacked over each other. The complete set of cisternae called golgi apparatus or golgi complex.
Question: 172
Write the functions of Golgi apparatus
Answer: 172
172-206
Golgi apparatus was discovered by Italian physician
Camillo Golgi: It is found in both plant and animal cells
Functions: It modifies molecules coming from rough ER and packs them into small membrane bound sacs called
Question: 173
Why is plasma membrane called semi-permeable
Answer: 173
173-206
Plasma membrane is called semi-permeable membrane as it allows only selective molecules to pass out of the cell and keep the most of the molecules inside the cell In this way it helps to maintain the chemical structure of the cell
Question: 174
Describe functions of vacuoles in a cell
Answer: 174
174-206
Function of Vacuoles in a cell: Vacuole in plant cell provides turgidity
Many cells take materials from outside in the form of food vacuole
Question: 175
Where Ribosomes found
Answer: 175
175-206
Ribosomes are tiny granular structures that are either floating in cytoplasm or bound to endoplasmic reticulum They play role in protein synthesis
Question: 176
Define reverse osmosis
Answer: 176
176-206
In advanced water-treatment technologies membrane-based filtration systems are used In this process semi-permeable membrane separate salts from water called reverse osmosis
Question: 177
Write names of types of Simple Tissues
Answer: 177
177-206
These are the plants tissue composed of single type of cells There re two types
Meristematic tissues
Permanent tissues
Question: 178
Define Ribosomes Also describe the importance of Ribosomes
Answer: 178
178-206
Ribosomes: Ribosomes are tiny granular structures that are either floating freely in cytoplasm or are bound to endoplasmic reticulum ER Each ribosome is made up of almost equal amounts of proteins and ribosomal RNA Ribosomes are not bound by membranes and are also found in prokaryotes Eukaryotic ribosomes are slightly larger than prokaryotic ones.
Question: 179
Define facilitated diffusion
Answer: 179
179-206
Many molecules do not diffuse freely across cell membranes because of their size or charge such molecules are taken into or out of th cells with the help of transport-protein present in cell membranes When a transport protein moves a substance from higher to lower concentration the process is called facilitated diffusion It is the type of passive transport
Question: 180
Write function of Mitochondria
Answer: 180
180-206
Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respiration and are the major energy production centers
Question: 181
Describe two functions of Cytoplasm
Answer: 181
181-206
Following are two functions of cytoplasm
The cytoplasm of the cell provides space for the proper functioning of the organelles
It acts as the site for various metabolic reactions, for example, Glycolysis
Question: 182
Write about Cytoskeleton
Answer: 182
182-206
Cytoskeleton is a network of microfilaments and microtubules Microtubules are made up of tubulin protein and are used by cells to hold their shape They are also the major component of cilia and flagella
Microfilaments are thinner and are made up of actin protein They help cells to change their shapes
Question: 183
What is meant by Hypertonic and Hypotonic solutions
Answer: 183
183-206
Hypertonic A solution having relatively more solute is called Hypertonic solution
Question: 184
Define Chromoplast and Leucoplast
Answer: 184
184-206
Chromoplast: The second type of plastids in plant cells are chromoplasts. They contain pigments associated with bright colurs and are present in the cells of flower petals and fruits
Question: 185
Write the function of smoothed endoplasmic reticulum
Answer: 185
185-206
Functions of smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: It is involved in lipid metabolism and in the transport of materials from one part of the cell to the other It also detoxifies the harmful effect of chemicals that have entered cell
Question: 186
Differentiate between simple tissues and compound tissues in plants
Answer: 186
186-206
Simple Tissues: Simple tissues are tissues present in plants and are composed of only one type of cells
Simple tissues are of further two types as following
Meristematic tissues
Permanent tissues
Question: 187
In which fields did Golgi win noble prize in 1906
Answer: 187
187-206
In 1906 Golgi was awarded Nobel prize for physiology and Medicine
Question: 188
Differentiate between Endocytosis and Exocytosis
Answer: 188
188-206
Endocytosis: It is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky materials by the infoldings of cell membrane
Question: 189
What are plastids
Answer: 189
189-206
Plastids: Plastids are membrane-bound organelles that only occur in plants and photosynthetic Protists
Question: 190
What are sclerenchyma tissues
Answer: 190
190-206
Sclerenchyma tissues are composed of cells with rigid secondary cell walls Their cell walls are hardened with lignin, which is the main chemical component of wood Mature sclerenchyma cells cannot elongate and most of them are dead
Question: 191
What are chromoplasts
Answer: 191
191-206
The second type of plastids in plant cells are chromoplasts They contain pigments associated with bright colors and are present in the cells of flower petals and fruits
Question: 192
How active transport is different from passive transport
Answer: 192
192-206
Passive transport is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration energy is not used in this process where as active transport is the movement of molecules from an area of lower concentration the the area of higher concentration and this movement require energy in the form of ATP
Question: 193
Define Diffusion
Answer: 193
193-206
Diffusion is the random movement of solute molecules from their higher concertation towards th4eir lower concentration Energy is not required in this process
Question: 194
Define passive diffusion
Answer: 194
194-206
Movement of molecules from an area of its high concentration to an area of its low concentration is called diffusion As cell consumes no energy in diffusion of molecules across the membrane hence diffusion is also termed as passive diffusion
Question: 195
What is Lysosomes
Answer: 195
195-206
Lysosomes contain strong digestive enzymes and work for the breakdown digestion of food and waste materials within cell During its function a lysosome fuses with the vacuole that contains the targeted material and its enzymes break down the material
Question: 196
What is Endocytosis
Answer: 196
196-206
Definition: Endocytosis is the process of cellular ingestion of bulky materials by the infoldings of cell membrane
Question: 197
Describe the function of Lysosomes
Answer: 197
197-206
Lysosomes contain strong digestive enzymes and work for the breakdown digestion of food and waste materials within cell During its function a lysosome fuses with the vacuole that contains the targeted material and its enzymes break down the material
Question: 198
What is meant by Pinocytosis
Answer: 198
198-206
In pinocytosis cell takes in liquid in the form of droplets pinocytosis is a type of endocytosis
Question: 199
Differentiate between phagocytosis and Pinocytosis
Answer: 199
199-206
In phagocytosis cell takes in solid material while in pinocytosis cell takes liquid in the form of droplets
Question: 200
Define Meristematic Tissue
Answer: 200
200-206
Meristematic Tissues: Meristematic Tissues are composed of cells, which have the ability to divided
Question: 201
What is meant by Osmosis
Answer: 201
201-206
Osmosis: Osmosis is the movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from a solution of lesser solute concertation to a solution higher solute concentration
Question: 202
What is the role of Xylem tissue in Plants
Answer: 202
202-206
Xylem Tissues; Xylem tissue is responsible for the transport of water and dissolved substances from roots to the aerial parts.
Two types of cell are found in xylem tissue vessels elements and tracheids
Question: 203
What is meant by collenchyma tissue
Answer: 203
203-206
Collenchyma Tissues are found in cortex beneath epidermis of young stems and in the midribs of leaves and in petals of flowers They are made of elongated cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls They are flexible and function to support the organs in wich they are found
Question: 204
What is difference between diffusion and osmosis
Answer: 204
204-206
Diffusion: Diffusion is the movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration towards the area of lower concentration
Question: 205
Differentiated between Skeletal Muscles and Smooth Muscles
Answer: 205
205-206
Skeletal Muscles: Skeletal muscles or striated muscles are attached to bones Their cells are striated and contain many nuclei They are responsible for the movements of bones
Question: 206
Name any two types of epithelial tissue
Answer: 206
206-206
Introduction: Epithelial tissues are found in animals These tissue convers the outside of body and lines organs and caviti4es This tissue has many types on the basis of cells as well as the number of cell layers the name of two types are given below