The study of energy relationships and energy transformations in living organisms is called bioenergetics.
What is redox reactions.
The oxidation and reduction reactions always run simultaneously and are called redox reaction. Redox reactions are direct source of energy for all life processes. Redox reactions involve exchage of electrons between atoms.
How is water taken in by plants for photosynthesis.
Water, present in soil, is absorbed by roots and root hairs through osmosis. This water is eventually transported to leaves through eylem vessels.
What is a nucleotide?
A nucleotide is a large molecule formed joining ribose sugar + Phosphate nitrogenous base.
What is NAD?
NAD is a coenzyme that takes electrons and hydrogen ions and is thus reduced to NADH. One form of this coenzyme also carries phosphate with it so is called NADP.
What are pigments?
Pigments are the substances that absorb visible light. Different pigments absorb light of different wavelengths.
Define ATP aand who discovered ATP.
The major energy currency of all cells is a nucleotide called adenosine triphosphate ,ATP was discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann.
Define Light reaction.
During this phase light energy is captured and is used to make high energy molecules ATP AND NADPH these reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
What are the functions of these processes in organisms.
These process ensure the maintenance, growth and reproduction of organisms.
Who proposed ATP as main energy transfer molecule in the cells?
the Nobel prize winner, Fritz Lipmann in 1941 proposed ATP as main energy transfer molecule.
Which type of bond is present between 'p' group of ATP.
The covalent bond connecting two phosphates is a high energy bond and is indicated by tilde.
What is the importance of anaerobic respiration.
i.Source of energy for anaerobic organisms.
ii. Source of energy for aerobic organisms in short supply of O2
iii. Source of many product.
Who discovered dark reactions?
Dark reactions were discovered by Malvin and his colleagues at university of california.the series of dark reactios is called Calvin cycle.
What is oxidation and reduction ?
Oxidation:The loss of electrons is called oxidation
Reduction:The gain of electron is called reduction
What is epidermis.
the single layer of cells on leaves is thin.it is called epidermis it is covered by cuticle.
Who discovered Krebs cycele?
A British biochemist, Sir Hans Krebs discovered this Krebs cycle.
What is redox reaction ?
Chemical reaction in which exchange of electron takes place is called redox reaction.
Define aerobic respiration.
The cellular respiration occurring in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration.
Define light reaction ?
Light energy is captured and used to make high-energy molecules these reaction are known as light reaction.
What are the main stages of aerobic respiration.
Aerobic respiration is divided into three main stages.
i. Glycolysis ii. Krebs cycle iii. Electron transport chain
How much energy is evolved from one mole of ATP ?
7.3 Kilocalories or 7300 calories energy is evolved form one mole of ATP.
How many stomata are present on a leaf?
Stomata cover only 1-2% of the leaf surface but they allow much air to pass through them.
Define Dark reaction ?
Dark reaction is the second step of photosynthesis in which glucose is synthesized by the reduction of carbon dioxide
In this process energy from high energy molecules is used
Dark reaction takes place in stroma of chloroplast
Wrote the names of different types of respiration?
There are two types of respiration i. Aerobic ii. Anaerobic
Define two type of energy in living organisms?
What is Z-Scheme?
The whole series of light reactions is called as Z-scheme due to its Z-shaped flow chart.
What is the effect of carbon dioxide concentration on photosynthesis?
A carbon dioxide concentration rises, the rate of photosynthesis goes on increases until limited by other factor. Increases in carbon dioxide concentration beyond a certain level cause the closure of stomach and it decreases the rate of photosynthesis
What is the most common fuel to get energy.
The most common fuel used by the cell to get energy by cellular respiration is glucose.
What is Abbreviation of ATP?
ATP is the abbreviation in 1829 by "Kari Lohmann" and was proposed to be the main energy-transfer molecule in cell by the novel prize winner, fritz Lipmann in 1941.
What are different phases of anaerobic respiration or fermentation?
The first phase is like aerobic respiration, and two molecules of pyruvic acid are formed by one molecule of glucose.
Which product are produce during photosynthesis?
Glucose, oxygen and water molecules are produced during photosynthesis.
What is Krebs Cycle?
In Krebs cycle, the pyruvic acid molecules are completely oxidized, along with the formation of ATP, NADH, and FADH,before entering in Krebs cycle,pyruvic acid is changed into a 2-carbon compound called acetyl-CoA.
Explain Bioenergetics ?
Bioenergetics is the study of energy relationship and energy transformation in living organisms. Organisms obtain energy by metabolizing the food they eat or prepare.
Whart are stomata?
The tiny openings present in the epidermis of leaf through which gases enter or leave the cells are called stomata. It consists of two bean shaped cells called guard cells.
Define Respiration and Cellular Respiration ?
Respiration:Exchange of gases between organisms and environment is called respiration.
Cell Respiration:Cellular Respiration is the break down of glucose in the cell of living organisms to produce energy.
Why oxidation-reduction reaction is called Redor ?
Exchange of electron between atoms take place during redox reaction
Loss or removal of electron from an atom is called oxidation where as gain or addition of electron to an atom is called reduction.
ATP+H2O ADP+Pi+Energy (7.3Kcal / mol)
What are FAD and NAD?
FAD:Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is also a coenzyme like NAD. It gets 2 hydrogen and reduce FADH2
NAD:Nicotinamind adenine dinclcotide (NAD) is a coenzyme. it is an oxidizing agent it accepts electron and reduced from (NADH)
Write the role of bioenergetics and ATP?
Bioenergetics means energy conversions in the body of living organisms organisms obtain energy by metabolizing the food, they eat or prepare
How is Soya Sauce made ?
Soya Sauce is made by fermentation of Soya plant wit the help of fungus named Aspergillus.
What is redox reaction
Chemical reactions in which exchange of electrons takes lace is called redox reaction It is a combination of two reactions i.e Oxidation reaction and reduction reactions Chemical reactions in living organism are almost redox reactioins
Explain the electrons can be source of energy during oxidation and reduction reaction?
Electrons as a source of energy release:Electron can be an energy source. it depend upon their location and arrangement in atoms.
Write two importance conditions for photosynthesis ?
Accurate amount of water.
chlorophyll and suitable intensity of light
Define Light Reaction
Photosynthesis occurs in two phase light energy is captured and is used to make high energy molecules ATP These reactions take place on the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts and known as light reactions Due to its shape it is called as Z scheme
Photosynthesis is the manufacturing of glucose form carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll,with oxygen as a by product.
What is pigments ?
Pigments are the substance that observed visible light different pigment absorb light of different wavelengths.
ATP was discoverd in 1929 by Kari lohmann, and was proposed to be the main energy-transfer molecule in the cell by the noble prize winner, fritz Lipmann in 1944
Name the compounds produced during respiration
Carbon dioxide water and energy is obtained during respiration
Why and when Calvin was awarded noble prize ?
In 1961 Melvin Calvin was awarded by noble prize for his work on details of dark reaction which is also known as Calvin cycle.
Write down the three subunits of ATP ?
Adenine-a doubled-ringed nitrogenous base
A ribose-a five carbon sugar
three phosphate groups in a linear chain
Write two uses of fermentation in yeast ?
What is meant by Z-Scheme ?
Z-Scheme:All stages of light reaction due to itsZ-Shaped chart is calledZ-Scheme.
Define light-dependent reaction
Light energy is captured and is used to make high- energy molecule. These reaction which are known as light reaction.
Write the name of main stage of Aerobic respiration?
Electron transport chain.
What is abrivation of FDA ?
Flavin adenine dinucleotide is also a coenzyme like NDA+. it get 2 hydrogen and reduce in to FADH2
What is photolysis?
light energy splits one molecules of water As a result oxygen is released it is known as photolysis of water .
Write the name of pigments used in photosynthesis ?
Explain that electrons can be source of energy during oxidation reduction reactions
Electrons as a Source of energy release: Electrons can be an energy source It depends upon their location and arrangement in atoms
What is the role of light in photosynthesis ?
Light energy excites the electron of chlorophyll which after forms ATP and are used in reduction of carbon dioxide in this way light energy is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose as chemical energy .
Define Fermentation ?
Breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen is called Fermentation or anaerobic respiration.
Write the name of four limiting factor for photosynthesis ?
Intensity of light
Availability of water
Differentiate between Alcoholic fermentation and Lactic acid fermentation
it occurs in bacteria yeast etc
In this process pyruvic acid is furth3er broken down into alcohol and Co2
What is meant by photosystem ?
Photosynthetic pigments lie on thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts in cluster from called photosystem.
What is Kreb Cycle ?
In kreb cycle the pyruvic acid molecule are completely oxidized along with the formation of ATP,NADH and FADH before entering in kerbs cycle pyruvic acid is change in to a-2 carbon compound acetyl CoA.
Define cellular respiration ?
Organisms utilize oxygen for the break down of C-H bonds present in the food in their cells, this breakdown yields energy which is transformed into ATP.
Why it is said that all life depends on photosynthesis ?
Photosynthesis is the manufacturing of glucose with oxygen as a by-product from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll.
Name the compound produced during respiration ?
Carbon dioxide, Water and energy is obtain during respiration.
Define effect of light ?
The rate of photosynthesis varies with light intensity. it decreased as light intensity decreased and increases as intensity increases
Name the final products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration ?
Aerobic respiration:Lactic acid or Ethyle Alcohol or carbon dioxide bioproduct of anoevobic respiraionFinal product:Carbon dioxide and water are biproduct aerobic respiraion
What is significance of Anaerobic respiration ?
Anaerobic respiration is a source of energy for anaerobic organisms. Anaerobic respiration is a source of energy in aerobic organisms in case of deficiency of oxygen
Define Alcoholic fermentation ?
Alcoholic fermentation:It is occur in bacteria and yeast, e.t.c .In this type of anaerobic respiration, pyruvic acid is further broken down in to alcohol and carbon dioxide
Define Dark Reaction
Dark Reaction: Dark Reaction is the second step of photosynthesis in carbon dioxide
In this process energy from high energy molecules ATP direct sunlight is used in these reactions that why these are called Dark Reactions Dark Reaction takes place in stroma ofchloroplast
What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis ?
Sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll. it is then converted into the chemical energy which drives the process of photosynthesis.
Define electron transport chain?
Electron transport chain is the final step of cellular respiration. It is the transfer of electron on an electron transport chain.
Who discovered the ATP molecule
Discovery of ATP ATP was discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann, and was proposed to be the main energy transfer molecule in the cell y the Nobel Prize winner Fritz Lipmann in 1941
Define Glycolysis ?
Glycolysis occur in cytoplasm and oxygen is not involed in this stage. that is why it occur in both type of respiration aerabic and anearobic.
Write down the three subunits of ATP
Adenine double ringed nitrogenous base
A ribose five carbon sugar
Three phosphate groups in a linear chain
What are Accessory ?
Chlorophyll a is the main photosynthetic pigment. Others are called accessory pigments.
What is meant by Anaerobes ?
Anaerobes:Some organisms get their energy form Anaerobic respiration instead of availability of free oxygen such organisms are known as Anaerobes.
Write two type of fermentation ?
Lactic acid fermentation.
How much energy is evolved from one Mole of ATP
7.3 Kilocalories or 7300 Calories energy is evolved from one mole of ATP
Define Anaerobic respiration ?
Anaerobic respiration:The incomplete oxidation glucose in the absence of oxygen is called anaerobic respiration.
Write the role of Bioenergetics and ATP
Bioenergetics means energy conversions in the body of living organisms Organisms obtain energy by metabolizing the food, they eat or prepare Food contains potential energy in its bonds When these bonds are broken down a large amount of Kinetic energy is stored in the form of potential energy the bonds of ATP molecules while the rest escapes as heat The potential energy stored in ATP is transformed into kinetic energy to carry out life activities
Define two types of energy in living organisms
In living organisms energy exists in two forms
In living organisms energy exist in two forms
Kinetic energy Potential energy
Kinetic energy is actively involved in doing work and potential energy is stored for future use Potential energy is stored in chemical bonds and is released as kinetic energy when these bond break
What is meant by electron transport chain ?
Electron transport chain is the final step of cellular respiration it is the transfer of electron on an electron transport chain in this step, NADH FADH2 release electron and hydrogen iron.
What is photosynthesis
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is the manufacturing of glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll with oxygen as a by product
Why it is said that all life depend on photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is the manufacturing of glucose with oxygen as a by product from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyii
Why oxidation reduction reaction is called Redox Reaction
Exchange of electrons between atoms takes place during Redox Reactions
Loss or removal of electron from an atom is called Oxidation where as gain or addition of electron to an atom is called Reduction
Describe the lactic acid fermentation ?
It occur in skeletal muscles of human and other animals during extreme physical activities this is also happens in the bacteria present in milk.
Define oxidation and reduction
Oxidation: The loss of electrons is called oxidation
Reduction: The gain of electrons is called reduction
Define Cellular Respiration
Organisms utilize oxxygen for the breakdown of C-H bonds present in the food in their calls This breakdown yields energy which is transformed into ATP During this process the C-H bonds are broken by oxidation reduction reaction and so carbon dioxide and water are also produced The cellular energy-yielding process is called cellular reparation
What is the energy budget of respiration ?
The NADH produce 3 ATP in electron transport chain. The NADH generated in glycolysis gives 2 ATP because 1 ATP is spent to transport it across the mitochondrial membrane.
Which products are produced during photosynthesis
Glucose oxygen and water molecules are produced during photosynthesis
What is Abbreviation of ATP
ATP is the abbreviation of Adenosine Triphosphate It is major energy currency of cells
What is abrogation of FAD
Flaming adenine dinucleotide FAD is also a coenzyme like It gets hydrogen and reduces into FADH
What is meant by Z Scheme
Z-scheme: All stages of light reaction due to its Z-shaped chart is called Z-Scheme
What is the Role of Light in Photosynthesis
Role of Light in Photosynthesis Light energy excites the electrons of chlorophyte which after form ATP and are used in reduction of carbon dioxide In this waylight energy is stored in the chemical bonds of glucose as chemical energy
What is the difference between light and dark reaction
Light energy is captured and used to make high energy molecules These reactions are known as light reactions which take place on the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts
Why it is said all life depends on photosynthesis
The process by which utilizes sunlight to make food and oxygen from carbon dioxide life depend on photosynthesis
When and what is discovered by Karl Lohmann
ATP was discovered in 1829 by Karl Lohmann and was proposed to be the main energy transfer molecule in cell by the Nobel prize winner Fritz Lipmann in 1941
What is photolysis of water
Light energy splits one molecule of water As a result oxygen is released It is known as photolysis of water Hydrogen produced during this process gives electrons to chlorophyll and becomes on itself
Write names of four limiting factors for photosynthesis
Intensity of Light
What is Limiting Factor
Any environmental factor the absence or deficiency of which can decrease the rate of a metabolic reaction is called limiting factor for that reaction Many factors like light intensity temperature concentration of carbon dioxide and availability of water act as limiting factors for photosynthesis All life depends on hotosynthesis
What is meant by bioenergetics
Bioenergetics is the study of energy relationship and energy transformations in living organisms Organism obtain energy by metabolizing the food they eat or prepare Food contains potential energy in its bonds When these bonds are broken down a large amount of Kinetic energy is usually released Some of this energy is stored in the form of potential energy in the bonds of ATP molecules while the roast escapes as heat The potential energy stored to carry out life activities
What is meant by photosystem
Photosynthetic pigments lie on thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts in cluster form called photosystem
Define Aerobic Respiration
Aerobic respiration: Aerobic respiration is complete oxidation of glucose in the presence of oxygen
What is the effect of CO2concentration on photosynthesis
As carbon dioxide concentration rises the rate of photosynthesis goes on increasing until limited by other factors Increase in carbon dioxide concentration beyond a certain level causes the colure of stomata and it decreases the rate of photosynthesis
Write names of main stages of Aerobic respiration
Stages of Aerobic Respiration
stages of aerobic respiration
Electron Transport Chain
Define redoxreaction ?
Redox reaction involveexhangeof electrons between atoms loss of electrons is called redution
Define Respiration and cellular Respiration
Respiration Exchange of gases between organism and environment is called respiration
What is alcoholic fermentation?
It occurs in bacteria, yeasts etc.In this type of anaerobic respiration, pyruvicacid id further broken down into alcohol
(C2H%OH) and Co2
Pyruvicacid ____> Ethyl alcohol
Why it is incorrect to say that energy relationship steop of respiration is electron transport chain
Energy is released in and Krebs cycles in the form of NADH and FADH Electron transport chain transforms the energy present in these compounds to ATP So it is incorrect to say that energy relationship step of respiration is electron transport chain
How is Soya Sauce made
Soya Sauce is made by fermentation of Soya plant with the help of a fungus named Aspergillus
Different limiting factors?
An environmental factor the absence or deficiency of which can decreases the rate of a metabolicreaction is called limitingfactor for that reaction. Many factor that like intensity, Temperature concentration of carbon dioxide.
Write two important conditions for photosynthesis
Some important conditions on photosynthesis are given below
Accurate amount of water
Chlorphyii and suitable intensity of light
CO is also necessary for this process as
Plants made their food glucose by the reduction of it
What are Pigments
Pigments are the substances that absorb visible light Different pigments absorb ligt of different wavelength Imprtant photosynthetic pigments are following
Difference between aerobic and anaerobicrespiration
Properties Aerobic Anaerobic
1-presence ofoxygen, yes no
2-Number of ATP 36 2
3-final product Sycolysis in in
Siteof in cytoplasm and cytoplasm
Where light reaction take place?
The summery of the event of light reaction is as follows
Electrons are passed to electron transport chain to produce ATp.
The electrons of chlorophyllafter the production of ATP and the hydrogen ions of water are used for the reduction of NADP intoNADPH
Define Z scheme?
The whole series of light reaction is called Z-scheme due to its z-shaped flow chant.
Names the final products of Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration: Lactic acid or Ethyl Alcohol or carbon dioxide are biproducts of anaerobic respiration
Write accessory pigments for photosynthesis
Pigment are the substance that absorb visible, Different pigments absorb light of different wavelengths.
What are Accessory Pigments
ChlorophyII is main photosynthetic pigment Others are called accessory pigments and include chlorophyIIB and carotenoids
What and when Calvin was awarded Nobel prize
in 1961 Melvin Calvin was awarded by Nobel prize for his work on details of dark reaction which is also known as Calvin cycle
What is epidermis?
Epidermis is the outermost layer of our skin. Its main purpose is protection. The epidermis is made of our layer.
What is glycolysis
Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm and oxygen is not involved in this stage That is why it occurs in both types of respiration i.e aerobic and anaerobic In glycolysis glucose molecule is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid 3C
Define lactic acid fermentation.
It occur in skeleton muscle of human and other animals during extreme physical activities. This also happen in the bacteria present in milk.
What is Significance of Anaerobic Respiration
Anaerobic respiration is a source of energy for anaerobic organisms Anaerobic respiration is a source of energy in aerobic organisms in case of deficiency of oxygen Anaerobic respiration is a source of many products e.g Ethyl Alcohol cheese etc
What is difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration is complete oxidation of glucose in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration
What are Glycolysis?
Glycolysisoccur in cytoplasm and oxygen is not involved in this stage. That is why . It occur in bath types of respiration aerobic and anaerobic. In glycolysis glucose, molecule is broken into two molecule and pyruvic acid 3c
What is Kreb Cycle
In krebs cycle the pyruvic acid molecules are completely oxidized along with the formation of ATP, NADH and FADH Before entering inkers cycle pyruvic acid is changed into carbon compound called acetyl Coal
Describe Lactic Acid fermentation
It occurs in skeletal muscles of humans and others animals during extremes physical activities This also happens in the bacteria present in milk In this type of anaerobic respiration, each pyruvic acid molecule is converted into lactic acid
What is cellular respiration?
The cellular energy weldingprocess is called cellularrespiration
Define alcoholic fermentation with equation
Alcoholic Fermentation: It occurs in bacteria and yeast etc In this type of anaerobic respiration pyruvic acid is further broken down into alcohol and carbon dioxide
What is meant by Anaerobes
Anaerobes; Some organisms get their energy from anaerobic respiration instead of availability of free oxygen such organisms are known as anaerobes
What are dark reaction?
The summary of the event of dark reaction also known as calvin cycle is as follow.
The 3 carbon compound are reduced to 3 carbon carbohydrates by using ATP and hydrogen from NADPH. The carbon carbohydrates are used to manufacture glucose.
Write down the commercialuses of fermentation
The fermentationabilities of fungi and bacteria for the benefit of mainkind the fermenting powers of bacteria areused for making cheese and yogurt Fermentation is yeasts isused in brewing and baking industries.
What was the discovering of Malvin Calvin ?
Calvin was awarded the Nobel prize in 1961 for his work on the detail of photosynthesis.
Define Anaerobic respiration
The incomplete oxidation of glucose in the absence of oxygen is called anaerobic respiration
Describe the effect of light intensity on photosynthesis
The factos that effects on photosynthesis called limiting factos for photosynthesis
Effect of light: The rate of photosynthesis varies with and increases as intensity increases However at much higher light intensity the rate of photosynthesis becomes constant
In Krebs cycle the pyrunic acid molecule are completely oxidizedalong with the formation of ATP,NADH and FADH, Before entering inkrebscycle
What is meant by Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chain is the final step of cellular respiration It is the transfer of elctron on an electron transport chain In this step NADH and FADH release electron and hydrogen ions, These electrons are taken up by a series of electron carriers When electrons move through the series of electron carriers they loose energy which is used to synthesize ATP At the end of chain electrons and hydrogen ions combine with molecular oxygen and form water
NADPH Stand for what
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidephosphate
Difference between photosynthesis and respiration
Characteristic Photosyothesis Respiration
1- Metabolisim Anabolism Catabolism
2-Organisms some bacteria All
cable of all algae Organisms
3-site of Choroplasts in cytoplasm
Difference between photosynthesis
Difference between photosynthesis and respiration
What is the energy budget of Respiration
Each NADH produces 3 ATP in electron transport chain The NADH generated in glycolysis gives 2 ATP because 1 ATP is spent transport it across the mitochondrial membrane Each FADH produces 2 ATP
What is ATP? Name the subunit of ATP molecular?
A- The major energy currency of all cells is a nucleotide called adenosinetriphosphateATP. Each type ATP moleculehas three subunits
1- adenine a double ringed nitrogenous base
2- a ribose a five carbon sugar
3- Three phosphate group in a linear chain.
Define Fermentation Name its two types
Fermentation: Breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen is called fermentation or anaerobic respiration It yields very less energy
What is pyruvic acid?
Pyruvic acid are completely oxidized to co2 and water and all energy is released. The overall reaction is as follows.